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  #1701  
Old 05-28-2019, 05:24 AM
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May 28, 1937: Near Callander, Ontario, Canada, the Dionne quintuplets are born to Oliva and Elzire Dionne; they will be the first quintuplets known to have survived their infancy.

The Dionne girls are born two months premature. After four months with their family, they will be made wards of the state for the next nine years under the Dionne Quintuplets' Guardianship Act, 1935. The Ontario provincial government and those around them will profit by making them a significant tourist attraction.

The identical quintuplet girls are, in order of birth:
1. Yvonne Édouilda Marie Dionne (will die in 2001)
2. Annette Lillianne Marie Allard (will still be alive in 2019)
3. Cécile Marie Émilda Langlois (will still be alive in 2019)
4. Émilie Marie Jeanne Dionne (will die in 1954)
5. Marie Reine Alma Houle (will die in 1970)
Their mother, Elzire, will report having had cramps in her third month of pregnancy, and passing a strange object, which may have been a sixth fetus.
  #1702  
Old 05-29-2019, 04:23 AM
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May 29, 1913: Igor Stravinsky's ballet score The Rite of Spring receives its premiere performance in Paris, France, provoking a riot.

Paris's Théâtre des Champs-Élysées is a new structure, and a dress rehearsal was held in the presence of members of the press and invited guests. According to Stravinsky, all went peacefully. However, one critic foresaw possible trouble; he wondered how the public would receive the work, and suggested that they might react badly if they thought they were being mocked.

On the evening of May 29, the disturbances in the audience begin during the Introduction, and grow noisier when the curtain rises on the stamping dancers in "Augurs of Spring". But a music historian will assert, "it was not Stravinsky's music that did the shocking. It was the ugly earthbound lurching and stomping devised by Vaslav Nijinsky." It is soon impossible to hear the music on the stage. In his autobiography, Stravinsky will write that the derisive laughter that greeted the first bars of the Introduction disgusted him, and that he left the auditorium to watch the rest of the performance from the stage wings. The demonstrations, he says, grew into "a terrific uproar" which, along with the on-stage noises, drowned out the voice of Nijinsky who was shouting the step numbers to the dancers.

At this time, a Parisian ballet audience typically consists of two diverse groups: the wealthy and fashionable set, who are expecting to see a traditional performance with beautiful music, and a "Bohemian" group who would acclaim anything that is new. The trouble begins when the two factions begin attacking each other, but their mutual anger is soon diverted towards the orchestra: "Everything available was tossed in our direction, but we continued to play on". Around forty of the worst offenders are ejected. Through all the disturbances the performance continues without interruption. The unrest recedes significantly during Part II, and by some accounts the final "Sacrificial Dance" is watched in reasonable silence. At the end there are several curtain calls for the dancers, for the orchestra, and for Stravinsky and Nijinsky before the evening's program continues.
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Old 05-30-2019, 12:10 AM
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May 30, 1883: A stampede on the recently-opened Brooklyn Bridge.

The tragic incident starts when a woman trips and falls descending the wooden stairs on the Manhattan side of the bridge. This causes another woman to scream at the top of her lungs, which causes those nearby to rush towards the scene. The commotion sparks a chain reaction of confusion, as more and more people panic and mob the narrow staircase, creating a massive pileup. Thousands are on the promenade, quickly turning the situation deadly.

Believing a collapse is imminent, terrified pedestrians scramble for the exit, trampling one another. Panicked men, women and children pile on top of each another and become trapped against the iron fences that line the narrow promenade. In true old-time New York fashion, pickpockets come to rob the helpless victims.

Eventually, some quick-thinking workers are able to cut away some of the iron fence, allowing trapped victims to escape from the promenade onto the streetcar tracks below. Afterwards, The New York Times will describe a vivid, gruesome scene, littered with gloves, shawls, handkerchiefs, smashed jewelry, crumpled men’s and women’s hats, and shredded trimming from ladies’ dresses. Broken canes and torn parasols spattered with blood are strewn about the roadway. 12 are dead on the stairs, and more than 35 are wounded.
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Old 05-31-2019, 02:04 AM
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May 31, 1889: The South Fork Dam fails catastrophically, causing a 60-ft. wall of water and debris to engulf the town of Johnstown, Pa., and the death of more than 2,200 people.

High above the city, the South Fork Dam was completed in 1853, Johnstown being the terminus of the canal supplied by the reservoir behind the dam. As railroads superseded canal barge transport, the dam, lake and canal were sold to private interests. The abandoned reservoir was converted into a private resort lake. The members built cottages and a clubhouse to create an exclusive and private mountain retreat. Membership grew to include more than 50 wealthy Pittsburgh industrialists. After 1881, when the club opened, the dam frequently sprang leaks. It was patched, mostly with mud and straw. There had been some speculation as to its integrity.

On the morning of May 31, after several days of heavy rain and futile attempts to avert a break, the dam collapses. 57 minutes later, after picking up structures, animals and barbed wire from a wire factory upstream, the flood hits Johnstown. The residents are caught by surprise as the wall of water and debris bears down, traveling at 40 miles per hour and reaching a height of 60 feet. Many people are crushed by pieces of debris, and others become caught in barbed wire and/or drown.

The Stone Bridge, which is a substantial arched structure, carried the Pennsylvania Railroad across the river. The debris carried by the flood forms a temporary dam at the bridge. Eventually, the surge returns to the dam, causing a second wave to hit the city, but from a different direction. Some people who had been washed downstream become trapped in an inferno, as the debris piled up against the bridge catches fire; at least 80 people die there. The fire at the bridge will burn for three days. It will take workers three months to remove the mass of debris, the delay owing in part to the huge quantity of steel barbed wire.
  #1705  
Old 05-31-2019, 11:57 PM
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June 1, 1495: A monk, John Cor, records the first known batch of Scotch whisky.

To Friar John Cor, by order of the King, to make aqua vitae, VIII bolls of malt.
— Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, 1 June 1495.

According to the Scotch Whisky Association, Scotch whisky evolved from a Scottish drink called uisge beatha, which is Latin for "water of life". The earliest record of distillation in Scotland occurred as long ago as 1494, as documented in the Exchequer Rolls, which were records of royal income and expenditure. The quote above records eight bolls of malt given to Friar John Cor wherewith to make aqua vitae over the previous year. This would be enough for 1,500 bottles, which suggests that distillation was well-established by the late 15th century.
  #1706  
Old 06-02-2019, 12:46 AM
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June 2, 1692: Bridget Bishop is the first person to be tried for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts.

Bishop was accused of bewitching five young women, on the date of her examination by the authorities, April 19, 1692.

Several people testify against Bishop, stating that she would pinch, choke or bite them. She had also threatened to drown one victim if she did not write her name in a certain book. During the trial, any time Bishop looks upon one of her alleged victims, they are immediately struck down, and only her touch would revive them. More allegations are made during the trial, including that of a woman saying that the apparition of Bishop tore her coat; upon examination her coat is found to be torn in the exact spot. One man accuses Bishop of bewitching his child and also of striking his son with a spade. One father and son testify that their cat appeared to be bewitched, or poisoned, after a dispute with Bishop.

During her sentencing, a jury of women find a third nipple upon Bishop (then considered a sure sign of witchcraft), yet upon a second examination the nipple is not found. In the end the biggest thing that condemns Bishop is the gross amount of lying she commits in court. According to one historian, "there was little occasion to prove the witchcraft, it being evident and notorious to all beholders."

Bishop is sentenced to death and will be hanged on June 10, age 59 or 60.
  #1707  
Old 06-03-2019, 06:09 AM
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June 3, 1943: The "Zoot Suit Riots" are a series of conflicts on June 3–8, 1943 in Los Angeles, which pit American servicemen stationed in Southern California against Mexican-American youths and other minorities who are residents of the city. L.A. is one of a dozen wartime industrial cities that suffer racially-related riots in the summer of 1943, along with Mobile, Alabama; Beaumont, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; and New York City.

American servicemen and white civilians attack and strip children, teenagers, and youths who wear zoot suits, ostensibly because they consider the outfits, which are made from a lot of fabric, to be unpatriotic during World War II. Rationing of fabric is required at the time for the war effort. The conflicts are rooted in racism against Mexicans and Mexican-Americans. While most of the violence is directed toward Mexican-American youth, young African-American and Filipino-Americans who are wearing zoot suits are also attacked.
  #1708  
Old 06-04-2019, 07:30 AM
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June 4,1939: The MSSt. Louis is denied permission to land in Florida, then Canada, after already being turned away from Cuba. Forced to return to Europe, more than 200 of its passengers later die in Nazi concentration camps.

Motorschiff St. Louis is a German ocean liner infamously known for carrying more than 963 Jewish refugees from Germany, intending to debark in Cuba, where they were denied permission to land. Captain Gustav Schröder directed St. Louis towards the United States. He circles off the coast of Florida, hoping for permission from authorities to enter the United States. Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, advises President Roosevelt not to accept the Jews. Captain Schröder considers running aground along the coast to allow the refugees to escape, but acting on Cordell Hull's instructions, U.S. Coast Guard vessels shadow the ship and prevent such action.

After St. Louis is turned away from the United States, a group of Canadians will try to persuade Prime Minister William King to provide sanctuary to the passengers. On June 9 Frederick Blair, an immigration official hostile to Jewish immigration, will persuade him not to intervene.

Captain Schröder will finally return the ship to Europe, where various European countries, including the UK, Belgium, the Netherlands, and France, will accept some refugees. Of the St. Louis passengers who will return to continental Europe, 87 will be able to emigrate before Germany invades western Europe in 1940. 254 passengers in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands after that date will die during the Holocaust. Most of these people will be murdered in Auschwitz and Sobibór; the rest will die in internment camps, in hiding or attempting to evade the Nazis.

These events will inspire film, opera, and fiction. Captain Gustav Schröder will be posthumously named as one of the Righteous among the Nations at the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial in Israel.
  #1709  
Old 06-05-2019, 03:48 AM
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June 5, 1981: The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that five people in Los Angeles have a rare form of pneumonia seen only in patients with weakened immune systems.

The initial cases are a cluster of injecting drug users and gay men with no known cause of impaired immunity who show symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a rare opportunistic infection that is known to occur in people with very compromised immune systems. Soon, an unexpected number of gay men will develop a previously rare skin cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Many more cases of PCP and KS will emerge, alerting U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and a CDC task force will be formed to monitor the outbreak.

In the general press, the term "GRID", standing for gay-related immune deficiency, will be coined. However, after determining that the syndrome is not isolated to the gay community, it will be realized that the term GRID is misleading, and the term AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) will be introduced at a meeting in July 1982. The following year, it will be established that a novel retrovirus, HIV, is infecting people with AIDS.

By 2017, more than 70 million people worldwide will have been infected with HIV.
  #1710  
Old 06-06-2019, 01:34 AM
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June 6, 1933: The first drive-in theater opens in Camden, New Jersey.

The drive-in theater is patented by Richard M. Hollingshead, Jr., whose family owns and operates the R.M. Hollingshead Corporation chemical plant in Camden. In 1932, Hollingshead conducted outdoor theater tests in his driveway. After nailing a screen to trees in his backyard, he set a 1928 Kodak projector on the hood of his car and put a radio behind the screen, testing different sound levels with his car windows down and up. Blocks under vehicles in the driveway enabled him to determine the size and spacing of ramps, so all automobiles could have a clear view of the screen. Hollingshead applied for a patent of his invention on August 6, 1932, and was given a patent on May 16, 1933.

Hollingshead's drive-in opens on June 6, 1933, on Admiral Wilson Boulevard in Pennsauken Township, a short distance from Cooper River Park. It offers 400 slots and a 40 by 50foot screen. He advertises his drive-in theater with the slogan, "The whole family is welcome, regardless of how noisy the children are." The first film shown is the Adolphe Menjou film Wife Beware.

Failing to make a profit, Hollingshead will sell the theater after three years to a Union, New Jersey theater owner who will move the infrastructure to that city. But the concept will catch on nationwide.
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Old 06-07-2019, 01:21 AM
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June 7, 1980: Author Henry Miller dies at age 88.
  #1712  
Old 06-07-2019, 01:44 AM
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June 7, 1899: Temperance crusader Carrie Nation begins her campaign of vandalizing alcohol-serving establishments, by destroying the inventory in a saloon in Kiowa, Kansas.

Nation describes herself as "a bulldog running along at the feet of Jesus, barking at what He doesn't like", and claims a divine ordination to promote temperance by destroying bars.

At one point she begins to pray to God for direction, and feels she received her answer in the form of a heavenly vision. Responding to the revelation, Nation gathers several rocks – "smashers", she calls them – and proceeds to Dobson's Saloon on June 7. Announcing "Men, I have come to save you from a drunkard's fate", she begins to destroy the saloon's stock with her cache of rocks. After she similarly destroys two other saloons in Kiowa, a tornado hits eastern Kansas, which she takes as divine approval of her actions.

At the suggestion of her husband, Nation will switch from rocks to a hatchet. Alone or accompanied by hymn-singing women, she will march into a bar and sing and pray while smashing bar fixtures and stock with her hatchet. Between 1900 and 1910, she will be arrested some 30 times for "hatchetations", as she will come to call them.
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Old 06-08-2019, 04:19 AM
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June 8, 452: Attila the Hun invades and ravages Italy.

New communities are established in what would later become Venice as a result of these attacks, when the residents flee to small islands in the Venetian Lagoon. Attila’s army sacks numerous cities and razes the town of Aquileia so completely that it will be afterwards hard to recognize its original site. Roman General Aëtius lacks the strength to battle, but manages to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force. Attila is finally halted at the River Po. By this point, disease and starvation may have taken hold in his camp, thus hindering his war efforts and potentially contributing to the cessation of invasion.

Italy had suffered from a terrible famine in 451 and her crops are faring little better in 452. Attila's devastating invasion of the plains of northern Italy this year do not improve the harvest. To advance on Rome would require supplies which are not available in Italy, and taking the city would not improve Attila's supply situation. Therefore, it is more profitable for Attila to retreat to his homeland.

In early 453 Attila will be at a feast celebrating his latest marriage. In the midst of the revels, however, he will suffer a severe nosebleed and choke to death in a stupor.
  #1714  
Old 06-09-2019, 03:52 AM
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Jun 9, 1934: Donald Duck makes his debut in The Wise Little Hen, a Walt Disney's "Silly Symphonies" cartoon, based on the fairy tale The Little Red Hen. In this debut, Donald Duck dances to the Sailor's Hornpipe. He and his friend Peter Pig try to avoid work by faking stomach aches until Mrs. Hen teaches them the value of labor.

The cartoon was animated by Art Babbitt, Dick Huemer, Clyde Geronimi, Louie Schmitt, and Frenchy de Tremaudan (with assistance from a group of junior animators headed by Ben Sharpsteen) and directed by Wilfred Jackson. It was also adapted as a Sunday comic strip by Ted Osborne and Al Taliaferro.

Florence Gill voiced the Wise Little Hen (She only properly speaks in her sung lines when she asks Peter and/or Donald if they will “Help her plant, harvest or eat her corn”). Clarence Nash voiced Donald Duck and Peter Pig.
  #1715  
Old 06-10-2019, 04:05 AM
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June 10, 1991: 11-year-old Jaycee Lee Dugard is kidnapped in South Lake Tahoe, California. She will remain a captive until 2009.

Dugard is abducted from a street while walking to a school bus stop. Searches begin immediately after her disappearance, but no reliable leads are generated despite the fact that her stepfather, Carl Probyn, witnesses her kidnapping and chases the kidnappers on his mountain bike. Dugard will remain missing until August 2009, when a convicted sex offender, Phillip Garrido, will visit the University of California campus in Berkeley accompanied by his two daughters. The unusual behavior of the trio will spark an investigation that will lead Garrido's parole officer to order him to take the two girls to a parole office in Concord, California. He will be accompanied by a woman identified as Jaycee Dugard, 29 years old.

Phillip, 58, and his wife Nancy, 54, will be arrested by police for kidnapping, imprisonment, and sexual assault. They will plead guilty to Dugard's kidnapping and sexual assault. Law enforcement officers will believe Dugard was kept in concealed tents, sheds, and lean-tos in an area behind the Garridos' house in Antioch for 18 years. During such time, Dugard will give birth to two daughters, who will be 11 and 15 at the time of her reappearance. Garrido will be sentenced to 431 years to life imprisonment; his wife, Nancy, will receive 36 years to life. Garrido will be a person of interest in at least one other San Francisco Bay Area missing person case.

In 2010, the State of California wil award the Dugard family $20million. In 2011, Dugard will write an autobiography titled A Stolen Life. Her second book, Freedom: My Book of Firsts, will be published in 2016. According to interviews, she will remain single, focusing on herself, her children, and her family. Her exact location will not be told to the public.
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Old 06-11-2019, 04:21 AM
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June 11, 1955: 83 spectators are killed and nearly 180 are injured, after two cars collide at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the deadliest ever accident in motorsports.

The disaster occurs at Circuit de la Sarthe in Le Mans, France. A major crash causes large fragments of debris to fly into the crowd, killing 83 spectators and French driver Pierre Bouillin (who has raced under the name Pierre Levegh) and injuring nearly 180 more. It will be the most catastrophic crash in motorsport history, and it prompts Mercedes-Benz to retire from motor racing until 1989.

The crash starts when Jaguar driver Mike Hawthorn cuts in front of Austin-Healey driver Lance Macklin to reach his pit stop, prompting Macklin to swerve into the path of Levegh, who is passing on the left in his much faster Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR. Levegh rear ends Macklin at high speed, overriding Macklin's car and launching his own car through the air. Levegh strikes a protective dirt berm at 125mph, disintegrating and igniting his car, throwing him onto the track where he is instantly killed, and sending large pieces of flaming debris cartwheeling over the berm and into the packed grandstand—including the engine block and hood.

Safety measures are relatively unknown in 1955. Aside from two layout changes to make the circuit shorter, the Le Mans circuit has been largely unaltered since the inception of the race in 1923, when top speeds of cars were typically in the region of 60mph. By 1955, top speeds for the leading cars are over 170. That said, the circuit had been resurfaced and widened post-war. The pits and grandstands had been reconstructed, but there are no barriers between the pit lane and the racing line, and only a 4-foot earthen bank between the track and the spectators. The cars have no seat belts; the drivers reason that it is preferable to be thrown clear in a collision rather than be crushed or trapped in a burning car.
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Old 06-12-2019, 01:02 AM
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June 12, 1939: Shooting begins on Paramount Pictures' Dr. Cyclops, the first horror film photographed in three-strip Technicolor.

Technicolor envisioned a full-color process as early as 1924 and was actively developing such a process by 1929. By 1931, however, the Great Depression took its toll on the movie industry, which began to cut back on expenses. The production of color films had decreased dramatically by 1932, when Burton Wescott and Joseph A. Ball completed work on a new three-color movie camera. Technicolor could now promise studios a full range of colors, as opposed to the limited red-green spectrum of previous films. The new camera simultaneously exposes three strips of black-and-white film, each of which records a different color of the spectrum. The new process will last until the last Technicolor feature film is produced in 1955.

Technicolor's advantage over most early natural-color processes is that it is a subtractive synthesis rather than an additive one: unlike the additive Kinemacolor and Chronochrome processes, Technicolor prints do not require any special projection equipment. Unlike the additive Dufaycolor process, the projected image is not dimmed by a light-absorbing and obtrusive mosaic color filter layer. Very importantly, compared to competing subtractive systems, Technicolor offers the best balance between high image quality and speed of printing.
  #1718  
Old 06-13-2019, 12:44 AM
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June 13, 1927: Aviator Charles Lindbergh receives a ticker tape parade down 5th Avenue in New York City.

Ticker tape parades originated after a spontaneous celebration held on October 28, 1886, during the dedication of the Statue of Liberty and is still most closely associated with New York City. The term ticker tape originally referred to the use of the paper output of ticker tape machines, which were remotely driven devices used in brokerages to provide updated stock market quotes. The term ticker came from the sound made by the machine as it printed. Ticker tape technology became obsolete in the 1960s, as television and computers came into use for transmitting financial information. Modern parades utilize waste office paper and toilet paper that have been cut using conventional paper shredders. The city also distributes paper confetti.

The section of lower Broadway through the Financial District that serves as the parade route for these events is colloquially called the "Canyon of Heroes". More than 200 black granite strips embedded in the sidewalks along this route list honorees of past ticker-tape parades.
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Old 06-14-2019, 04:45 AM
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June 14, 1949: Albert II, a rhesus monkey, rides a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 134km (83mi), thereby becoming the first monkey in space.

The first primate astronaut was Albert I, a rhesus macaque, who on June 11, 1948, rode to over 63km (39mi) on a V-2 rocket. Albert died of suffocation during the flight. Albert was followed by Albert II who survived the V-2 flight but died on impact on June 14, 1949, after a parachute failure. Albert II became the first monkey and the first primate in space, as his flight reached 134km (83mi) - past the Kármán line of 100km taken to designate the beginning of space. Albert III died at 35,000 feet (10.7km) in an explosion of his V2 on September 16, 1949. Albert IV, on the last monkey V-2 flight, died on impact on December 8 that year after another parachute failure. His flight reached 130.6km. Alberts, I, II, and IV were rhesus macaque while Albert III was a crab-eating macaque.
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Old 06-15-2019, 01:07 AM
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June 15, 1878: Eadweard Muybridge takes a series of photographs to prove that all four feet of a horse, Sallie Gardner, leave the ground when it runs; the study becomes the basis of motion pictures.

Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, also known as The Horse in Motion, is a series of photographs consisting of a galloping horse. The series and later experiments like it are precursors to the development of motion pictures. The series consists of 24 photographs shot in rapid succession. Muybridge had arranged the cameras along a track parallel to the horse's path. He used 24 cameras which were 27 inches apart. The shutters were controlled by trip wires triggered by the horse's legs. The photographs were taken in succession 1/25 of a second apart, with the shutter speeds calculated to be less than 1/2000 second. The jockey set the mare to travel at a speed of 1:40, which meant that she was galloping at a mile per 1 minute and 40 seconds, equivalent to 36 miles per hour.

It was released throughout 1878–1880. Muybridge was commissioned by Leland Stanford, the industrialist and horseman, who was interested in gait analysis. The purpose of the shoot was to determine whether a galloping horse ever lifts all four feet completely off the ground during the gait; at this speed, the human eye cannot break down the action. The photographs showed that all four feet are indeed sometimes simultaneously off the ground, though this occurs only when the feet are "gathered" beneath the body, not when the fore and hindlimbs are "extended" as sometimes depicted in older paintings.
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Old 06-16-2019, 06:30 AM
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June 16, 1884: The first purpose-built roller coaster, LaMarcus Adna Thompson's "Switchback Railway", opens in New York's Coney Island amusement park.

For five cents, riders would climb a tower to board the large bench-like car and were pushed off to coast 600ft (183m) down the track to another tower. The car went just over 6mph (9.7km/h). At the top of the other tower the vehicle was switched to a return track or "switched back" (hence the name). This track design was soon replaced with an oval complete-circuit ride designed by Charles Alcoke and called the Serpentine Railway. In 1885 Phillip Hinkle developed a lift system which appeared in his ride called Gravity Pleasure. The Gravity Pleasure also featured cars in which the passengers could face forward instead of in the awkward bench-like seats of the first two roller coasters.

Not to be outdone, in 1886 LaMarcus Adna Thompson patented his design of coasters that included dark tunnels with painted scenery. Thompson built many more roller coasters across the country which were called "The L.A. Thompson Scenic Railway". Some of these operated until 1954.
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Old 06-17-2019, 12:41 AM
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June 17, 1631: Mumtaz Mahal dies from postpartum hemorrhage, while giving birth to her 14th child, after a prolonged labor of approximately 30 hours. Her husband, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan I, will spend the next 17 years building her mausoleum, the Taj Mahal.

The Taj Mahal is seen as an embodiment of undying love and marital devotion. English poet Sir Edwin Arnold describes it as "Not a piece of architecture, as other buildings are, but the proud passion of an emperor's love wrought in living stones." The beauty of the monument is also taken as a representation of Mumtaz Mahal's beauty and this association leads many to describe the Taj Mahal as feminine. Since Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decorations on graves, the bodies of Mumtaz and Shah Jahan are placed in a relatively plain crypt beneath the inner chamber with their faces turned to the right and towards Mecca.
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Old 06-18-2019, 02:46 AM
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June 18, 1178: Five Canterbury monks see what is possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed. It is believed that the current oscillations of the Moon's distance from the Earth (on the order of meters) are a result of this collision.

The monks reported to the abbey's chronicler, Gervase, that shortly after sunset on 18 June 1178, (25 June on the proleptic Gregorian calendar) they saw "the upper horn [of the moon] split in two". Furthermore, Gervase writes:
From the midpoint of the division a flaming torch sprang up, spewing out, over a considerable distance, fire, hot coals and sparks. Meanwhile the body of the Moon which was below writhed, as it were in anxiety, and to put it in the words of those who reported it to me and saw it with their own eyes, the Moon throbbed like a wounded snake. Afterwards it resumed its proper state. This phenomenon was repeated a dozen times or more, the flame assuming various twisting shapes at random and then returning to normal. Then, after these transformations, the Moon from horn to horn, that is along its whole length, took on a blackish appearance.
In 1976, the geologist Jack B. Hartung proposed that this described the formation of the crater Giordano Bruno.
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Old 06-19-2019, 02:12 AM
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June 19, 1978: Garfield, holder of the Guinness World Record for the world's most widely syndicated comic strip, makes its debut.

Created by Jim Davis, the strip chronicles the life of the title character, Garfield, the cat; Jon Arbuckle, the human; and Odie, the dog. As of 2013, it was syndicated in roughly 2,580 newspapers and journals, and held the Guinness World Record for being the world's most widely syndicated comic strip.

Though this is rarely mentioned in print, Garfield is set in Muncie, Indiana, the home of Jim Davis. Common themes in the strip include Garfield's laziness, obsessive eating, coffee, and disdain of Mondays and diets. Originally created with the intentions to "come up with a good, marketable character", Garfield has spawned merchandise earning $750 million to $1 billion annually. In addition to the various merchandise and commercial tie-ins, the strip has spawned several animated television specials, two animated television series, two theatrical feature-length live-action/CGI animated films, and three fully CGI animated direct-to-video movies.

Part of the strip's broad pop cultural appeal is due to its lack of social or political commentary; though this was Davis's original intention, he also admitted that his "grasp of politics isn't strong," joking that, for many years, he thought "OPEC was a denture adhesive".
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Old 06-20-2019, 02:17 AM
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June 20, 1942: Kazimierz Piechowski and three others, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, steal an SS staff car and escape from the Auschwitz concentration camp.

After the collapse of Polish resistance to the German invasion, Piechowski and a friend, Boy Scouts, were captured by the German occupiers in his hometown of Tczew and impressed into a work gang. Polish Boy Scouts were among the groups targeted by the Gestapo and the Selbstschutz. They escaped and attempted to get to France to join the free Polish Army. While crossing the border into Hungary they were captured by a German patrol. After several imprisonments they wound up in Auschwitz.

On the morning of June 20, 1942, exactly two years after his arrival, Piechowski and three others escaped from Auschwitz 1. They went to the warehouse in which the uniforms and weapons were stored, arming themselves with four machine-guns and eight grenades.

They left the main Auschwitz camp through the Arbeit Macht Frei gate. With the car stopped, Piechowski opened the door and leaned out enough for the guard to see his rank insignia and yelled at him to open the gate. The gate opened and the four drove off.

After the war he attended the Gdańsk University of Technology and became an engineer, and then found work in Pomerania. He was denounced to the communist authorities for being a member of the Home Army and sentenced to 10 years in prison; he served 7.

Piechowski died on December 15, 2017, aged 98.
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Old 06-21-2019, 03:27 AM
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June 21, 1893: The first Ferris wheel premieres.

The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel, was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. With a height of 264ft. it was the tallest attraction at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, where it opened to the public on June 21, 1893. It was intended to rival the 1,063-ft. Eiffel Tower, the centerpiece of the 1889 Paris Exposition.

The wheel had 36 cars, each fitted with 40 revolving chairs and able to accommodate up to 60 people each, giving a total capacity of 2,160. The wheel carried some 38,000 passengers daily and took 20 minutes to complete two revolutions, the first involving six stops to allow passengers to exit and enter and the second a nine-minute non-stop rotation, for which the ticket holder paid 50 cents.
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Old 06-22-2019, 12:22 AM
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June 22, 1969: The Cuyahoga River catches fire in Cleveland, Ohio, drawing national attention to water pollution, and spurring the passing of the Clean Water Act and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

The Cuyahoga River, at times during the 20th century, was one of the most polluted rivers in the United States. The reach from Akron to Cleveland was devoid of fish. At least 13 fires had been reported, the first occurring in 1868. The largest river fire in 1952 caused over $1 million in damage to boats, a bridge, and a riverfront office building.

On June 22, 1969, a river fire captured the attention of Time magazine, which described the Cuyahoga as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person "does not drown but decays". The 1969 fire caused approximately $50,000 in damage, mostly to an adjacent railroad bridge.

The fire helped spur an avalanche of water pollution control activities, resulting in the Clean Water Act, and the creation of the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In the years since the fire, water quality has improved and, partially in recognition of this improvement, the Cuyahoga was designated one of 14 American Heritage Rivers in 1998.
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Old 06-28-2019, 04:46 PM
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June 28, 1969: The Stonewall riots: a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBTQ) community against a police raid that began in the early morning hours of June 28, at the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village. They are widely considered to constitute the most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBTQ rights in the United States.

Very few establishments welcomed openly gay people in the 1950s and 1960s. Those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia. It catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: drag queens, transgender people, effeminate young men, butch lesbians, male prostitutes, and homeless youth. Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, and often resulted in arrests, beatings, sexual assaults and worse, and officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn. Tensions between police and gay residents erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents quickly organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gays and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being beaten and arrested.

Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U.S. and the world. On June 28, 1970, the first gay pride marches took place in major U.S. cities, commemorating the anniversary of the riots. Today, LGBT Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. The Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016.
  #1729  
Old 07-03-2019, 03:08 PM
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July 3, 1883: The SS Daphne sinks during launch on the Clyde in Scotland. Somewhere between 124 and 195 die. A number of the dead are young boys working their first job at the shipyard.
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Old 07-08-2019, 11:10 PM
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July 9, 1958: The 7.8 Lituya Bay Earthquake in Alaska kills 5 and triggers an enormous rockslide into Lituya Bay. The resulting 1720 foot mega-tsunami wave is the tallest known wave in history.
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Old 07-10-2019, 10:28 AM
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July 10, 1913: A temperature of 134°F is reached in Death Valley, California. This is the highest temperature ever recorded on Earth.
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Old 07-19-2019, 01:03 PM
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July 19, 1969 Apollo 11 entered into lunar orbit
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Old 07-22-2019, 01:10 AM
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July 22, 1928: Orson Bean is born.
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Old 07-29-2019, 06:35 AM
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July 29, 1858 Japan signs a treaty of commerce and friendship with the United States
July 29, 1921 Adolf Hitler becomes the president of the Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis)
July 29, 1949 Moscow ends the blockade of West Berlin

Last edited by tomplatz; 07-29-2019 at 06:36 AM.
  #1735  
Old 08-06-2019, 07:14 AM
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August 6th, 1945: Hiroshima
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Old 08-06-2019, 08:03 AM
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August 6, 1930: Judge Joseph Force Crater steps into a taxi in New York and disappears, never to be seen again.
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Old 08-19-2019, 12:00 PM
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August 19, 1969: The remnants of hurricane Camille drop 27 inches of rain in six hours on Nelson County in Virginia. 150 are killed making this the state's deadliest natural disaster. It rained so hard birds purportedly drowned in trees unable to breathe. I currently live at pretty much ground zero for this event, and the scars on the mountainsides are still visible fifty years later.
  #1738  
Old 09-03-2019, 09:01 AM
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Valerie Perrine born September 3rd, 1943.
  #1739  
Old 09-03-2019, 01:31 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by atimnie View Post
Valerie Perrine born September 3rd, 1943.
And on that very same day, the Allied invasion of Italy began.
  #1740  
Old 09-03-2019, 01:46 PM
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Yeah, well, that happened too...
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Old 09-03-2019, 02:59 PM
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September 3, 1777 – American Revolutionary War: During the Battle of Cooch's Bridge, the Flag of the United States is flown in battle for the first time.

September 3, 1783 – American Revolutionary War: The war ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris by the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain.
  #1742  
Old 09-05-2019, 11:32 PM
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September 6, 1916: America's first ever self-service grocery store, Piggly Wiggky opens in Memphis, Tennessee.
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Old 09-16-2019, 11:39 AM
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September 16th, 1979: 40 years ago today, "Rapper's Delight" was released, kicking off the rap music revolution.

https://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb...d.php?t=882141

Last edited by JohnT; 09-16-2019 at 11:40 AM.
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