Straight Dope Message Board

Straight Dope Message Board (https://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/index.php)
-   Cafe Society (https://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/forumdisplay.php?f=13)
-   -   Top 5 Best Selling Beers In America (https://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/showthread.php?t=880100)

Royal Nonesutch 08-08-2019 01:29 PM

Top 5 Best Selling Beers In America
 
1) Bud Light
2) Coors Light
3) Michelob Ultra Light
4) Miller Lite
5) Modelo Especial


Ooof...

The beer snobbery around here can be a little over-the-top, but damn.

I generally LIKE traditional, mass-produced American lagers, both "budget-friendly" brands (Pabst Blue Ribbon, which I have been drinking regularly in Salt Lake City since the late 1980's, long before it became "Ironically Hip", and other similar brands like Rainier, Hamm's or Stroh's) as well as more expensive mainstream offerings like Budweiser (NOT Bud Light) or Coors Banquet (NOT Coors Light) but I guess light beer is clearly where the money is at these days.

As for Modelo, that is a shocker, as if I had to guess a top selling Mexican import I would have for sure picked Tecate or Corona.

But after reading that, I am more happy than ever to be here in beautiful Krakow, where the local Polish piwo is excellent, crisp and clean finishing, with a kick like a Mormon Mule (no 3.2% Blues around here) and when I want to do something a little different for a change, a 1/2 liter bottle of imported German Spaten, Czech Staropramen or Slovak Zlaty Bazant is 75 cents at the local version of 7-11, and even less than that at a supermarket.

What Exit? 08-08-2019 01:34 PM

#1 US owned and made beer is Yuengling Lager which is also fairly cheap and pretty tasty. Also the oldest US beer.
#2 by a small margin is Sam Adams. Not bad at all though no bargain. Almost every bar as Bud on tap and a Ice Cold Bud is drinkable enough though far from my first choice.

Light beer is very popular currently and the options are far less, so they get a lot of sales.

enalzi 08-08-2019 01:38 PM

It's important to remember that while these are the most popular individually, they still only make up 1/3rd of the market combined. If you combined all craft beer, it would be number one on the list:
https://twitter.com/NateSilver538/st...30433611337730

thelurkinghorror 08-08-2019 01:52 PM

Modelo is strange because it's halfway decent, though I like Negra Modelo better. It's in most stores, but I don't perceive it as nearly as well-known as Corona or Tecate, too.

Yuengling has a very small market, they are popular with epicenters around PA and FL, but it's impossible to find on the west coast.

What Exit? 08-08-2019 02:02 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by thelurkinghorror (Post 21795056)
Modelo is strange because it's halfway decent, though I like Negra Modelo better. It's in most stores, but I don't perceive it as nearly as well-known as Corona or Tecate, too.

Yuengling has a very small market, they are popular with epicenters around PA and FL, but it's impossible to find on the west coast.

Yuengling is a super regional. No further west then Indiana and all up and down the East Coast. Someday they'll open another brewery and expand a little further into the west. West Coast probably won't happen anytime soon. 2 Breweries is all they have and use. The Breweries are in Pottsville, PA & Tampa. The Lager is excellent, especially for its price and I enjoy their Porter very much. Both are priced reasonably. The Lager is on tap in about half the bars in New Jersey now.

kenobi 65 08-08-2019 02:16 PM

I suspect that the fact that that the top 4 are all light beers speaks, in part, to the consumption habits of the drinkers. They're likely drunk by people who are planning to have multiple beers that night, and don't want so many calories. Many of them are drinking to get buzzed, and as long as the beer isn't objectionably foul-tasting, they may not care about the taste (or lack thereof).

In addition, though I don't have the numbers in front of me, I can assure you that Bud Light, Miller Lite, and Coors Light, between the three of them, account for the majority of beer advertising and promotional spending in the U.S.

Royal Nonesutch 08-09-2019 07:46 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by thelurkinghorror (Post 21795056)
Modelo is strange because it's halfway decent, though I like Negra Modelo better...

Negra Modelo is one of the best "easy drinking" dark beers around, it has flavor, but finishes lightly, and you don't feel like you have eaten a 3 course meal after you finish one.

Anchor Steam is similar in that regard to me, as are beers like the lesser known Czech offerings like Budweiser Budvar Dark (not available in the U.S.?) or Kozel Cerny.

Many years ago, Michelob made a dark beer that was easy to drink, and although it probably wouldn't have been embraced by microbrew purists, it finished like a standard lager, light and clean, but it tasted more substantial than traditional brews.

manson1972 08-09-2019 09:00 AM

Why the hate for Bud Light? It's awesome!

silenus 08-09-2019 09:04 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by manson1972 (Post 21796548)
Why the hate for Bud Light? It's awesome!

Awesomely bad, you mean.

What Exit? 08-09-2019 09:06 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by manson1972 (Post 21796548)
Why the hate for Bud Light? It's awesome!

Enjoy it, but it is light on taste. Best I can say for it, it is much better than Corona Light, Miller Light and especially Coors Light. Clearly more Americans prefer drinking Bud Light to others, but taste varies greatly and to me and most of the vocal beer drinkers on this board, Bud Light isn't even worth drinking. I would rather just drink ice water.

I found a light beer I can enjoy, Yuengling Light wasn't bad. But I would rather drink Yuengling or almost any Red, Brown or Cream Ale and most Porters and some Stouts.

manson1972 08-09-2019 09:17 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by What Exit? (Post 21796564)
Enjoy it, but it is light on taste. Best I can say for it, it is much better than Corona Light, Miller Light and especially Coors Light. Clearly more Americans prefer drinking Bud Light to others, but taste varies greatly and to me and most of the vocal beer drinkers on this board, Bud Light isn't even worth drinking. I would rather just drink ice water.

If they had ice water with alcohol in it, i would just drink that. Who drinks beer for taste? :)

pulykamell 08-09-2019 09:21 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Royal Nonesutch (Post 21796402)
Negra Modelo is one of the best "easy drinking" dark beers around, it has flavor, but finishes lightly, and you don't feel like you have eaten a 3 course meal after you finish one.

Anchor Steam is similar in that regard to me, as are beers like the lesser known Czech offerings like Budweiser Budvar Dark (not available in the U.S.?) or Kozel Cerny.

Many years ago, Michelob made a dark beer that was easy to drink, and although it probably wouldn't have been embraced by microbrew purists, it finished like a standard lager, light and clean, but it tasted more substantial than traditional brews.

What's that dark Texas beer -- c'mon -- I know I know this ... Shiner Bock, that's it! I think that fills that easy-drinking, clean finish, but a bit heftier than traditional American light lagers void. I know it's called a "bock," but, at least to me, it just tastes like a bit of a darker, slightly grainier/maltier version of an American lager. Yuengling also has a decent dark beer with similar characteristics (though I can't get Yuengling in Chicago -- have to go to Indiana.) Looking it up, it's the Yuengling Black & Tan that I'm thinking of.

Or you can just get a Negra Modelo, which is ubiquitous here.

For anyone looking for a light beer that has a reasonable amount of flavor in it, try Deschutes Da Shootz. I was browsing the beer aisle before attending a party to pick up some brews and was in the mood for something summery and easy drinking, like a pilsner or American wheat. This offering by Deschutes caught my eye, with its colorful flowery packaging and its promise of being a refreshing pilsner at 4.0% ABV. Perfect, I thought! When I got to the party and opened a can, I decided to google its calorie content, because at 4.0% for the style, it's probably pretty low. Sure enough, under 100 calories (at 99)! Nowhere on their packaging or cans do they advertise that this is a "light beer" -- I assume perhaps not to be lopped into "light beer" stereotypes -- but, damn, this is the tastiest light beer I've ever had.

What Exit? 08-09-2019 09:23 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by manson1972 (Post 21796581)
If they had ice water with alcohol in it, i would just drink that. Who drinks beer for taste? :)

Some beers are really tasty, if you're use to drinking Bud Light, I fully understand your point of view though. :D

There are dozens of styles of beers and 1000s of different beers now. A Cream or Milk Stout is practically a desert drink. To me Porters like Yuengling, George Washington, Founders and Saranac are extremely tasty. Also, the hobby of finding beers you really enjoy is fun and gives you something else to discuss with friends and strangers.

Besides, it is a lot of fun to have complete beer snobs like silenus tell you why your choices are wrong and it makes him happy to have the chance. :)


ETA: I like a Shiner Bock from time to time. I usually only buy it when I can get a 12 pack on sale though. It doesn't taste much like a black & tan though.

pulykamell 08-09-2019 09:24 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by manson1972 (Post 21796581)
If they had ice water with alcohol in it, i would just drink that. Who drinks beer for taste? :)

And while I was picking out my beers for that party, I discovered that not only do they sell spiked seltzer water, they even sell spiked still water. I accidentally bought one in a mix-your-own 6-pack, expecting it to be a bubbly water. Nothing on the market yet (as far as I know) as pure as flavorless spiked ice water, but they're getting pretty close, so maybe your suggestion may one day come true.

pulykamell 08-09-2019 09:32 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by What Exit? (Post 21796594)
ETA: I like a Shiner Bock from time to time. I usually only buy it when I can get a 12 pack on sale though. It doesn't taste much like a black & tan though.

It doesn't, and neither does Yuengling's Black and Tan, but it's nice when you want a slightly "darker" tasting (and colored) version of an American lager.

I'm a beer snob aficionado, but my daily drinkers here are Old Style and whatever Polish lager happens to be on sale at the local Eastern European grocery (Okocim, Żywiec, Tyskie, Łomża, generally in that order of preference). Occasionally, I'll sub a PBR for the Old Style just to mix things up.

manson1972 08-09-2019 09:38 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by pulykamell (Post 21796599)
And while I was picking out my beers for that party, I discovered that not only do they sell spiked seltzer water, they even sell spiked still water.

Holy crap, that looks good. And dangerous.

I actually drink beer because it limits how much I can drink. I can only drink a beer so fast, and can only have so many before I just get full. So, I guess I probably wouldn't drink alcoholic ice water.

BrickBat 08-09-2019 11:29 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by silenus (Post 21796560)
Awesomely bad, you mean.

Word. It's not actually bad tasting, it's just that the taste is so weak. It's a limp watery mess. Miller Lite is just as bad, but I read once where some beer aficionado visited a Miller brewery in, I believe Ft Worth Tx, and sampled some pre-diluted Miller Lite. He said they said they had a very specific recipe for it, then cut it with water. He reported the pre-diluted beer was quite flavorful.

silenus 08-09-2019 02:10 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by What Exit? (Post 21796594)
Besides, it is a lot of fun to have complete beer snobs like silenus tell you why your choices are wrong and it makes him happy to have the chance. :)

Yep. :p

People who put rice in beer are the same type that would put cashews on a pizza or beetroot on a hamburger.

thelurkinghorror 08-09-2019 03:46 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by silenus (Post 21797225)
Yep. :p

People who put rice in beer are the same type that would put cashews on a pizza or beetroot on a hamburger.

Australians? Actually, looking at the alcohol content of their beers (enough to make a Utahn add a shot), you might be right.

ThisSpaceForRent 08-09-2019 04:02 PM

Only beer on that list i would drink is the Modelo Especial .

Tonight I think I'll have a few Lauganitas "Super Clusters"

bobot 08-09-2019 04:20 PM

For a lighter (ABV) beer that still tastes really good I've been a fan of this one recently. Lots of availability in the Chicago area, I just don't know about elsewhere.
https://revbrew.com/beer/core-cans/every-day-hero
I have no idea about the caloric makeup, but for 4.3% ABV it is still quite tasty.

Royal Nonesutch 08-10-2019 06:28 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by pulykamell (Post 21796621)
I'm a beer snob aficionado, but my daily drinkers here are Old Style and whatever Polish lager happens to be on sale at the local Eastern European grocery (Okocim, Żywiec, Tyskie, Łomża, generally in that order of preference). Occasionally, I'll sub a PBR for the Old Style just to mix things up.

Man, your beer tastes seem to line up with mine right down the line.

In America, PBR has been my Go-To for 30 years, since before I was able to legally drink it, but back in the late 1980's when Old Style was sold in Utah (it was 3.2%) I used to buy it regularly, they sold 12 packs of the little stubby "Hand Grenade" bottles that I used to love (Red Stripe uses the same shaped bottle) and on a hot Salt Lake City summer evening, those suckers went down pretty easy.

Now after being here in Poland, I am in Beer Nirvana, as Polish piwo is perfect for me, light (in color, not in taste) lagers and especially Pilsners (my overall favorite style of beer) are like a religion here (like they need another one ;)) and I try new ones almost every week, and as I have mentioned before, the fluid oz. equivelent of an American 6 pack is around $2.50 for mass market brands (Zywiec, Tyskie, Lezajsk) maybe a buck more for a "Micro-brew" label, and imported German, Dutch, Czech or Slovakian beer is somehow almost the same price as domestic brands if I am in the mood for something different.

I like American beer, and I started drinking American micros right when the expolsion first started in the late 1980's, and as I was seeing the Grateful Dead play every chance I got back then, I spent a LOT of time at Ground Zero in the early days of craft brewing (specifically Northern California, Oregon, Washingtom and Colorado) but for my tastes these days, as I get older, most American micros are too heavy, too filling and too substantial for me to want to have more than one of at a setting, so I couldn't be in a better geographical area for my favorite beers.

(My plan was originally to move to Prague to teach English, in no small part because of my love of Czech pivo, I had been there several times in the past and always enjoyed the Czeck way of life very much. Before settling down, I decided to visit Krakow for one week, just to sightsee and check out a new place for the hell of it. By far, the single best decision of my entire life. Na Zdrowie!)

Vinyl Turnip 08-10-2019 06:41 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by manson1972 (Post 21796548)
Why the hate for Bud Light? It's awesome!

My Brother: You want a beer?

Me: Sure!

My Brother: All I have is Bud Light.

Me: Awwwwwwwwwe...

Royal Nonesutch 08-10-2019 06:50 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Vinyl Turnip (Post 21798133)
My Brother: You want a beer?

Me: Sure!

My Brother: All I have is Bud Light.

Me: Awwwwwwwwwe...

On a hot summer evening, a cold, classic Budweiser is a really good thirst-quenching beer, the right balance of taste, alcohol (though not quite enough, IMO) and a clean finish.

Bud Light, no noticable taste, something around 4% ABV, I don't see the point.

pulykamell 08-10-2019 09:23 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by bobot (Post 21797449)
For a lighter (ABV) beer that still tastes really good I've been a fan of this one recently. Lots of availability in the Chicago area, I just don't know about elsewhere.
https://revbrew.com/beer/core-cans/every-day-hero
I have no idea about the caloric makeup, but for 4.3% ABV it is still quite tasty.

Estimated calories I could find on that is 129. Not bad at all. I'm happy to see more and more of these "sessionable" beers come on the market. That said, a lot of these "session" beers are still over 4.5% (like Founders All-Day IPA), which I feel is still a tad high. For me, the cutoff is at about 4.2%. While I do tend to drink beers in the 5-7% abv range, it'd be nice to see some more of the lighter, but still flavorful, styles like English Milds and Ordinary Bitters get a little love after the American brewing tendency of taking a style and exaggerating it to its limits. Not that I don't enjoy that kind of fun experimentation -- I absolutely do -- but when the market is flooded with these very strongly flavored styles, my first instinct as a brewer would be to go exactly the opposite and fill the niche of more delicately flavored and lower octane beers. Don't you want to distinguish yourself in the market? Do we really need yet another imperial stout or pale ale on the market?

Ukulele Ike 08-10-2019 09:32 AM

God, yes, preach it! I would love to have regular access to a good pint o’bitter.

pulykamell 08-10-2019 09:36 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Royal Nonesutch (Post 21798121)
a
Now after being here in Poland, I am in Beer Nirvana, as Polish piwo is perfect for me, light (in color, not in taste) lagers and especially Pilsners (my overall favorite style of beer) are like a religion here (like they need another one ;)) and I try new ones almost every week, and as I have mentioned before, the fluid oz. equivelent of an American 6 pack is around $2.50 for mass market brands (Zywiec, Tyskie, Lezajsk) maybe a buck more for a "Micro-brew" label, and imported German, Dutch, Czech or Slovakian beer is somehow almost the same price as domestic brands if I am in the mood for something different.

What is the craft brewing scene like out there? When I left Budapest after 5 years in 2003, there was no craft brewing to speak of, and the Hungarian beers were not much to speak of. Certainly more flavorful than your American macros, but nothing special. The Austrian or German beers were usually a preferable choice for me, and there was one bar that had a fairly fresh Pilsner Urquell on tap that I loved (which is a beer I didn't think much of when I've had it anywhere outside this region.) Even when I visited in 2004, 2007, and 2010, it was still a static beer culture. Just your usual Hungarian brands.

The last time I visited, though, in 2017, the craft brewing scene in Budapest was absolutely bonkers. It went from a city where you could only find a very small handful of styles (basically pilsner/lager and bock) to having the full range of styles you'd find at your local hipster hangout here in the US. And they were really good at it! One of my favorites was a spiced ale flavored with Earl Grey. I'm not one typically for flavored beers, but this was very judiciously spiced, and not overpowering (like American "pumpkin" ales that are just a huge blast of nutmeg and cinnamon), but rather complementary.

Is there a similarly strong Polish craft scene these days?

pulykamell 08-10-2019 09:42 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Ukulele Ike (Post 21798307)
God, yes, preach it! I would love to have regular access to a good pint o’bitter.

I just don't understand it from a business perspective. As a new brewer, wouldn't it be better not to try to take a share of the overcrowded APA/IPA market and instead fill the void of underrepresented styles like bitters? Perhaps most of the American craft-beer-drinking market only looks at ABV and IBUs, but I'd still have to think even if only 2% of the market is craving for bitters, it make more sense to be on one of, say, ten brewers angling for that market vs being one brewer against thousands of beers going for (let's exaggerate) what 80% of the market wants.

silenus 08-10-2019 10:16 AM

See Uke's amen. I'd happily maim someone to get the brewpub down the street to start making a decent mild or bitter. A session beer with flavor that isn't Guinness - is that too much to ask of local brewers?

What Exit? 08-10-2019 11:26 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by silenus (Post 21798391)
See Uke's amen. I'd happily maim someone to get the brewpub down the street to start making a decent mild or bitter. A session beer with flavor that isn't Guinness - is that too much to ask of local brewers?

How do you feel about Murphy's Stout, I enjoy it and can't seem to enjoy Guinness. Too ashy to me. Sadly almost never see it around here.

QuickSilver 08-10-2019 11:36 AM

I enjoy virtually every Sam Adams beer made....



...i'll let my self out.

What Exit? 08-10-2019 11:41 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by QuickSilver (Post 21798537)
I enjoy virtually every Sam Adams beer made....



...i'll let my self out.

They make plenty of good beers, though I can't stand the citrusy Summer Ale. I don't love them enough to usually pay the price they command. And of course I don't like their IPAs as I have yet to find an IPA that I can enjoy. Their Octoberfest is pretty tasty and their Porter was pretty good.

pulykamell 08-10-2019 03:42 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by QuickSilver (Post 21798537)
I enjoy virtually every Sam Adams beer made....



...i'll let my self out.

Sam is fine. I love their Boston Lager when fresh. Back in the early-mid 90s when craft beers started making waves, I especially loved their honey porter. (Not sure it’s still around, and it’s probably not as strong a porter as the ones I’m used to now, but I really enjoyed the hell out of that brew.)

I find them quite well priced, only a little more expensive that macros, and significantly cheaper than most micros around here.

silenus 08-10-2019 04:04 PM

Jim Koch (Sam Adams) is a craft beer god. His influence and drive jump-started the whole movement in the public consciousness. Too bad his beers are crap. :p

The one I miss from back in the day is Pete's Wicked Ale.


If Murphy's is available I'll drink it. The key here, as What Exit? noted, is available. As is, my choices are usually Guinness, some brewer's attempt at an Imperial Stout and if Jebus loves me Mackeson in bottle. Although I haven't seen Mackeson in the wild in too long. Big Ed Bookman said it for us all:

Big Ed Bookman: You ain't gonna let me have it, are you, Lord? I'm a sinner and you're gonna fuck me. -"Semi-Tough"

Bijou Drains 08-10-2019 04:29 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by QuickSilver (Post 21798537)
I enjoy virtually every Sam Adams beer made....



...i'll let my self out.

I guess you are worried people won't like this statement because many people think anything popular = bad.

NDP 08-10-2019 06:12 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by What Exit? (Post 21798544)
They make plenty of good beers, though I can't stand the citrusy Summer Ale. I don't love them enough to usually pay the price they command. And of course I don't like their IPAs as I have yet to find an IPA that I can enjoy. Their Octoberfest is pretty tasty and their Porter was pretty good.

I like SA's Double Bock which is another one of their seasonal brews. Unfortunately, they either no longer distribute it to my part of the US or no longer brew it because I haven't had one for a few years.:(

Chefguy 08-10-2019 06:14 PM

I'm not a beer snob; I just spent too much time living in Europe and got used to the flavorful, terrific beers that can be had in that part of the world. German, Czech, Polish, Belgian; all good stuff. When I finally came back to the states, I was shocked at how tasteless American beers were (compared to my memory of them), while at the same time elated that microbreweries had sprung up everywhere.

What Exit? 08-10-2019 06:16 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by NDP (Post 21799148)
I like SA's Double Bock which is another one of their seasonal brews. Unfortunately, they either no longer distribute it to my part of the US or no longer brew it because I haven't had one for a few years.:(

I remember that one, I recall it being quite good, but I only had it once.

I went to a small festival my kids are helping with and my daughter's boyfriend was playing at. Stayed less than an hour but walked down to Triumph Brewery. Nice place in Red Bank, NJ (Also Princeton & New Hope, PA).

I had a flight 🍻🍻 of a nice Irish Red Ale, a Mild Irish Ale, a German Black Lager & a classic Bitter. The Irish Red Ale & the Bitter were very good. Had some good fries with it and a crappy over-cooked expensive burger. But the beer especially was enjoyable. The bartender noted I picked all their dark beers, not an accident.

Ukulele Ike 08-10-2019 07:45 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by What Exit? (Post 21798544)
They make plenty of good beers, though I can't stand the citrusy Summer Ale.

Y0u know what I miss? Plain old regular Pilsner from Leinenkugel, (a “brave little brew” (as Cecil Adams said many years about Rolling Rock). It was a signature beer of Wisconsin, and perfect for knocking back with your double-brat or 12-year-old cheddar.

Several years ago they introduced some kind of lemony summer beer, and ALL the other Leinenkugel disappeared from East Coast shelves.

What Exit? 08-10-2019 08:23 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Ukulele Ike (Post 21799301)
Y0u know what I miss? Plain old regular Pilsner from Leinenkugel, (a “brave little brew” (as Cecil Adams said many years about Rolling Rock). It was a signature beer of Wisconsin, and perfect for knocking back with your double-brat or 12-year-old cheddar.

Several years ago they introduced some kind of lemony summer beer, and ALL the other Leinenkugel disappeared from East Coast shelves.

The Leinenkugel Snowdrift Vanilla Porter is awesome, all those Shandies they push are absolute crap (to me). I would enjoy some 12 yr old cheddar too.

We use to get Saranac down here in Central Jersey from Utica, NY. They brew a great Pale Ale, 2 excellent porters and their lager is good enough.

Ukulele Ike 08-10-2019 09:10 PM

A road trip to Wisconsin is well worth it for the beer, cheese, and bratwurst.

Then your arteries explode, and you don’t need to drive back to Jersey.


All times are GMT -5. The time now is 11:21 PM.

Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.7
Copyright ©2000 - 2019, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.

Send questions for Cecil Adams to: cecil@straightdope.com

Send comments about this website to: webmaster@straightdope.com

Terms of Use / Privacy Policy

Advertise on the Straight Dope!
(Your direct line to thousands of the smartest, hippest people on the planet, plus a few total dipsticks.)

Copyright © 2019 STM Reader, LLC.