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Old 09-01-2018, 01:52 AM
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MrDibble is offline
Join Date: Mar 2001
Location: Cape Town, South Africa &
Posts: 25,559
Originally Posted by bob++ View Post
City and town are pretty interchangeable.
Not to archaeologists, urban planners or anthropologists - and while there's a continuum, even in common parlance there's generally a differentiation to be made.

In the UK, it used to be that a city had a cathedral, a town didn't. That's why small Ely is a city. That went by the wayside, though, and just royal proclamation was all that counted. But that definition isn't really useful in the Levant, now is it?

Archaeologists usually use some variant of Childe's 10 criteria, :
  1. increased settlement size,
  2. concentration of wealth,
  3. large-scale public works,
  4. writing,
  5. representational art,
  6. knowledge of science and engineering,
  7. foreign trade,
  8. full-time specialists in nonsubsistence activities,
  9. class-stratified society,
  10. political organization based on residence rather than kinship.
That's overlain nowadays with the functional definition concept, where cities are defined in terms of the services they provide hinterlands, as not all archaeological cities meet all Childe's criteria.