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#1
12-30-2006, 04:20 PM
 kanicbird Guest Join Date: May 1999 Posts: 18,551
Why 15 psi max on pressure cookers?

All the pressure cookers I have seen have 15 PSI as their max pressure, which is the 'normal' pressure one would cook with in a pressure cooker. Many have no other setting. The ones that do have other choices usually have 5 PSI as a option.

My questions are:

Why 15 PSI?
Why don't they make ones that go to 25, or for that matter 90 PSI?
Does anyone make one that exceeded the 15 PSI limit?
#2
12-30-2006, 05:43 PM
 Rick Charter Member Join Date: Aug 1999 Posts: 16,451
I would guess that it has to do with the amount of material that it would take to reinforce it to withstand a higher pressure. For example look at the clamps on this spray paint tank
Can imagine the potential danger if a pressure cooker at 90 PSI failed and sprayed shrapnel, and dangerously hot food all over your kitchen?
#3
12-30-2006, 06:27 PM
 minor7flat5 Charter Member Join Date: Sep 2002 Location: Trenton, NJ Posts: 4,547
Robustness of the vessel aside, the difference would be the saturation temperature of water at the target pressure.

Your 15psig (g=gage pressure, add 14.7psi for absolute pressure) pot has a saturation temperature (boiling point) of around 250F. Bumping the pressure up to 90psig gets you a saturation temperature of 331F.

I'm not sure what effect that would have on the food you are cooking, but that would be the physical difference.
#4
12-30-2006, 10:09 PM
 Napier Charter Member Join Date: Jan 2001 Location: Mid Atlantic, USA Posts: 8,969
I bet it's historical tradition or lawyers.

Check out Autoclave Engineers in Erie, PA. When I visited them a few years ago they made stock vessels that handled up to 160,000 psi and custom vessels that went higher. I think they managed pretty high temperatures, too.

I remember working out one time conditions that made supercritical water miscible with silica.
#5
12-31-2006, 06:24 AM
 casdave Member Join Date: Mar 2000 Posts: 8,139
I would expect that you'll find that above a certain pressure (and also a certain volume), it would come under pressure vessel legislation, which requires regular maintenance inpections, such as safety valve testing and overpressure tests.

Differant countries have differant requirements, but when you take into account manufacturing tolerances, and the general srewup factor, the potential safety margin pressures might mean that although 15 p.s.i is hugely under the limits, this other factors might push it somewhat closer.

The pressure was set by USDA way back in 1917, probably under the Food control and production acts

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure_cooker

In the UK pressure vessels means anything above around 7 p.s.i with a volume greater than 250 bar litres, but as the pressure goes up, the allowable volume decreases.

http://www.devonline.gov.uk/text/ind...ressuresys.htm

I would expect that to construct a pressure cooker that fell into these classifications would result in something prohibitively expensive, and realistically it not actually worth it in terms of pratical use, higher pressure+higher temperature with the accompanying risks of safe venting.
#6
12-31-2006, 08:46 AM
 Czarcasm Charter Member Charter Member Join Date: Apr 1999 Location: Beervania Posts: 54,625
It looks like this question calls for factual answers rather than opinions, so I'm moving this thread from IMHO to General Questions.
#7
12-31-2006, 09:17 AM
 Harmonious Discord Guest Join Date: Apr 1999 Location: Wisconsin USA Posts: 16,843
I believe casdav has the reason that higher pressure ones are not in most retail stores. You would have to have regular inspections all the stuff that goes with it. When a high pressure vessel explodes everybody can end up dead.
#8
12-31-2006, 03:51 PM
 rowrrbazzle Guest Join Date: Jul 1999 Location: Chicago Posts: 8,531
Quote:
 Originally Posted by minor7flat5 Robustness of the vessel aside, the difference would be the saturation temperature of water at the target pressure. Your 15psig (g=gage pressure, add 14.7psi for absolute pressure) pot has a saturation temperature (boiling point) of around 250F. Bumping the pressure up to 90psig gets you a saturation temperature of 331F. I'm not sure what effect that would have on the food you are cooking, but that would be the physical difference.
Home canning was once widely practiced. According to this page http://www.bchealthguide.org/healthfiles/hfile22.stm 240F is the minimum temperature to destroy botulism spores, reached at 10psig. It's necessary when canning low acid foods like meat and most vegetables. This page http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplo...nut/gh1490.htm has a chart that says to use 15psig for weighted gauge pressure cookers for altitudes 1000-2000 feet.
#9
01-01-2007, 10:10 PM
 t-bonham@scc.net Guest Join Date: Mar 2003 Location: Minneapolis, MN Posts: 13,818
Quote:
 Originally Posted by kanicbird Why 15 PSI?
Because there is no consumer demand for anything more than 15psi.

- all the recipes out there are designed for 5, 10, or at most 15psi.
- all the cooks out there have experience using these psi's.
- food cooks quickly at 15psi, without significant damage to flavor or texture. Higher psi's would tend to result in mush-like food.
- more than 15psi would require a sturdier cooker, thus more expensive.
- more than 15psi would be riskier, thus more expensive product liability insurance.
- more than 15 psi would be more expensive to use; you have to heat it up to a higher psi, all that is lost when you open it to take out a set of jars, then you have to get it back up to that high psi again for the next load.

So basically, a max of 15psi is what everybody's used to using, and it's good enough to do the job.

Such info is one of the benefits of having a mother who has done home canning all her life. And still is doing so in her mid-80's. For Xmas, I received a box of home canned items, mostly grown in her home garden.
#10
01-02-2007, 02:24 AM
 David Simmons Charter Member Join Date: Nov 2001 Posts: 12,684
Quote:
 Originally Posted by casdave I would expect that you'll find that above a certain pressure (and also a certain volume), it would come under pressure vessel legislation, which requires regular maintenance inpections, such as safety valve testing and overpressure tests.
Maybe, but I have an air compressor that goes to 150 psi for which I don't need regular inspections. Government safey regulations don't seem to apply as long as the public and any employees are not involved with the compressor.

As a complete WAG I would go along with minor7flat5 and t-bonham@scc.net that 15 psi gets you to as high a boiling point as is needed or desirable for cooking purposes.
#11
01-02-2007, 07:57 AM
 SuperNelson Charter Member Join Date: Jun 2000 Location: Central Nebraska Posts: 952
Is there any relationship between 15 PSI in the pressure cooker, and 15 PSI being the ambient pressure at sea level? I would guess that the pressure cooker value is relative pressure, but is there a particular significance to the pressure inside the cooker being roughly double the pressure outside?
#12
01-02-2007, 11:08 AM
 Napier Charter Member Join Date: Jan 2001 Location: Mid Atlantic, USA Posts: 8,969
>Is there any relationship between 15 PSI in the pressure cooker, and 15 PSI being the ambient pressure at sea level?

Good question, and this seems oddly significant, but I can't think of any relationship at all. Temperatures depend in a nonlinear way on pressures so it's not like this should let you cut cooking times exactly in half, easier to calculate. Nothing special happens at 15psig = 30 psia to my knowledge. I do a lot of work in thermodynamics, but nothing looks important about this pressure to me.
#13
01-02-2007, 11:48 AM
 casdave Member Join Date: Mar 2000 Posts: 8,139
The UK pressure vessel regulations certainly cover compressed air vessels, however here we are dealing with steam, which has the added ingredient of temperature.

Pressurised air vessels would still require safety valves, and above a certain volume and pressure, would certainly require testing.

Control of pressure could also be achieved by ensuring that the pump could not supply above a certain limit.

I can think of plenty of applications where fairly small steam pressure vessels come under the regulations, things such as instrument autoclaves, the total volume of some of these isn't a huge leap from that of a large pressure cooker.

Some industrial cooking systems also fall under the regulations, so all in all, it isn't too great a stretch.
#14
09-28-2011, 03:13 PM
 wilderkind Guest Join Date: Sep 2011 Posts: 1
15psig safety

AMSE code states that any vessel exceeding 15 psig must be inspected periodically for safety reasons. This law is inacted to regulate boilers primarily.
#15
09-28-2011, 03:18 PM
 Folacin Guest Join Date: Oct 2008 Location: North of the River Posts: 2,689
Quote:
 Originally Posted by wilderkind AMSE code states that any vessel exceeding 15 psig must be inspected periodically for safety reasons. This law is inacted to regulate boilers primarily.
But I wonder if that level was set because most pressure cookers are 15 psi? Possibly a chicken/egg sort of thing?
#16
09-28-2011, 03:24 PM
 Malacandra BANNED Join Date: Jan 2003 Location: England, Britain, UK Posts: 18,480
What temperature kills zombification spores, anyway?
#17
09-28-2011, 04:16 PM
 Rocketeer Guest Join Date: Aug 2000 Posts: 6,902
Quote:
 Originally Posted by David Simmons Maybe, but I have an air compressor that goes to 150 psi for which I don't need regular inspections. Government safey regulations don't seem to apply as long as the public and any employees are not involved with the compressor...
Your air compressor isn't full of superheated steam, either. A steam explosion is much much worse than a compressed-gas explosion.
#18
09-28-2011, 06:36 PM
 Jinx Member Join Date: Dec 1999 Location: Lost In Space Posts: 7,829
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Napier I bet it's historical tradition or lawyers. Check out Autoclave Engineers in Erie, PA. When I visited them a few years ago they made stock vessels that handled up to 160,000 psi and custom vessels that went higher. I think they managed pretty high temperatures, too. I remember working out one time conditions that made supercritical water miscible with silica.
Actually, anything above 15 psig would be considered a pressure vessel by ASME Code and require to be regulated (inspected) under state and/or Federal law. Small vessels receive a "UM" stamp, IIRC, and large vessels over some threshold require a "U" stamp. Also, pressure vessels require a pressure relief valve which has its own cycle of required ASME certified inspections. Oh, and Napier, yes the pressure rating is for a specified temp as temps above the rated temp will weaken the pressure vessel wall material,

Last edited by Jinx; 09-28-2011 at 06:37 PM.
#19
09-28-2011, 07:42 PM
 drachillix Guest Join Date: Jun 2000 Location: 192.168.0.1 Posts: 9,789
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Rocketeer Your air compressor isn't full of superheated steam, either. A steam explosion is much much worse than a compressed-gas explosion.
Sure...until you have a tank of chlorine gas go....
#20
09-28-2011, 09:22 PM
 AaronX Guest Join Date: Feb 2011 Location: 127.0.0.1 Posts: 3,469
My friend managed to open a pressurized pressure cooker once, I heard there was food left on the ceiling. His hand and face got burnt, but he recovered ok (some scars, no loss of function).
#21
09-28-2011, 10:23 PM
 nolonger lurking Guest Join Date: Jan 2007 Location: Austin Posts: 128
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Rocketeer Your air compressor isn't full of superheated steam, either. A steam explosion is much much worse than a compressed-gas explosion.
There is a reason for the backronym for BLEVE "Blast Levels Everything Very Efficiently"
#22
09-29-2011, 09:24 AM
 Machine Elf Guest Join Date: Feb 2007 Location: Challenger Deep Posts: 10,623
Quote:
 Originally Posted by minor7flat5 Robustness of the vessel aside, the difference would be the saturation temperature of water at the target pressure. Your 15psig (g=gage pressure, add 14.7psi for absolute pressure) pot has a saturation temperature (boiling point) of around 250F. Bumping the pressure up to 90psig gets you a saturation temperature of 331F. I'm not sure what effect that would have on the food you are cooking, but that would be the physical difference.
Imagine a pressure cooker 12 inches in diameter. At 15 psig, the force trying to remove the lid is about 1662 pounds. Not only does the lid need to be strong, but the retention mechanism as well. Plus the bottom of the pot, which experiences the same total force, needs to remain relatively flat. bump up the gauge pressure sixfold, and you need some very thick material to ensure that the bottom remains flat and the lid stays on.

Given the safety concerns with respect to a potential BLEVE, a cooking vessel rated for 90 psi would be very heavy and very expensive, and will include a surcharge to provide the manufacturer with a hefty liability insurance policy against the inevitable fatal cooking accident that will occur when a user does something wrong or the cooker suffers a mechanical failure (sell 100,000 units, and someone somewhere somehow will have a problem).
#23
09-29-2011, 09:27 AM
 muldoonthief Member Join Date: Jul 2003 Location: North of Boston Posts: 10,047
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Malacandra What temperature kills zombification spores, anyway?
No kidding, I was shocked then saddened to see David Simmons post to this thread.

Last edited by muldoonthief; 09-29-2011 at 09:27 AM.
#24
09-29-2011, 09:51 AM
 Borzo Guest Join Date: Mar 2011 Posts: 350
Quote:
 Originally Posted by AaronX My friend managed to open a pressurized pressure cooker once...
Why would someone do such a thing?
#25
09-29-2011, 10:10 AM
 kunilou Charter Member Join Date: Apr 1999 Posts: 22,759
Quote:
 Originally Posted by AaronX My friend managed to open a pressurized pressure cooker once, I heard there was food left on the ceiling. His hand and face got burnt, but he recovered ok (some scars, no loss of function).
Another anecdote. My mother used to can using a pressure cooker. One time she did something wrong, I don't know what, but the safety cap blew and left a dent in the ceiling.

If that could happen with a standard kitchen pressure cooker, what kind of damage could have happened with a malfunctioning/user error high pressure cooker?
#26
10-04-2011, 09:02 PM
 AaronX Guest Join Date: Feb 2011 Location: 127.0.0.1 Posts: 3,469
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Borzo Why would someone do such a thing?
He didn't know how pressure cookers work, or that you're supposed to depressurise them before opening.
#27
01-21-2015, 10:43 PM
 Saintvamp Guest Join Date: Jan 2015 Posts: 1
I would think it has to do more with what was capable back when the recipes were invented (cost to make for the general population to purchase) and that the FDA found that cooking at 220 235 250 degrees F. for specific times killed specific bacterias found in foods making them safer for human consumption. Safety laws involving pressurized vessels came into effect after pressure cooking / canning was put into general practice so any laws were probably made to exclude pressure cookers and canners.
#28
01-22-2015, 08:44 AM
 am77494 Guest Join Date: Mar 2012 Posts: 1,130
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Jinx Actually, anything above 15 psig would be considered a pressure vessel by ASME Code and require to be regulated (inspected) under state and/or Federal law. Small vessels receive a "UM" stamp, IIRC, and large vessels over some threshold require a "U" stamp. Also, pressure vessels require a pressure relief valve which has its own cycle of required ASME certified inspections. Oh, and Napier, yes the pressure rating is for a specified temp as temps above the rated temp will weaken the pressure vessel wall material,
Those stamps are for Unfired Pressure Vessels. The pressure cooker is a fired vessel.
#29
10-21-2015, 05:49 PM
 FRE0 Guest Join Date: Oct 2015 Posts: 1
Maximum pressure

I have unsuccessfully attempted to find a pressure cooker that can be operated at more than 15 psi, perhaps 30 psi. Obviously it would cook faster, but they don't seem to be available. 30 psi is not especially high; I have an air compressor that goes up to 125 psi and it does not require any special permits. Pressurized water nuclear reactors operate at around 1,500 psi.

Charles Darwin, the scientist who wrote about evolution, discovered the need for pressure cookers when he was on an expedition at high altitude. Potatoes remained hard even after being boiled for 24 hours. In the early days of pressure cookers, pressures greater than 100 psi were tried. I don't want anything that high, but it would be nice if I could cook brown rice at 30 psi because that would make it cook faster.

It is unclear why we cannot buy pressure cookers that operate at greater than 15 psi.
#30
10-21-2015, 08:43 PM
 Rick Charter Member Join Date: Aug 1999 Posts: 16,451
Quote:
 Originally Posted by FRE0 It is unclear why we cannot buy pressure cookers that operate at greater than 15 psi.
__________________
Remember this motto to live by: Life should NOT be a journey to the grave with the intention of arriving safely in an attractive and well preserved body, but rather one should aim to skid in sideways, chocolate in one hand, glass of Scotch in the other, your body thoroughly used up, totally worn out and screaming "WOO HOO! Man, what a ride!"
#31
10-22-2015, 04:23 AM
 Isilder Guest Join Date: Mar 2013 Posts: 4,206
Quote:
 Originally Posted by FRE0 It is unclear why we cannot buy pressure cookers that operate at greater than 15 psi.
While the chef is trying to get thanks, and would be utterly amazed at applause and would die if there was a standing ovation, he is really not interested in *bringing the roof down *.
#32
10-22-2015, 05:07 AM
 Your Great Darsh Face BANNED Join Date: Nov 2014 Location: Over your garden wall Posts: 1,147
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Malacandra What temperature kills zombification spores, anyway?
A higher temperature than we had four years ago, clearly.
#33
10-22-2015, 02:16 PM
 Dag Otto Guest Join Date: Sep 2003 Location: Las Cruces Posts: 5,004
The BLEVE link explains "When a liquid boils it turns into a gas. The resulting gas takes up far more space than the liquid did."

For superheated water flashing to steam at atmospheric pressure, that ratio is about 7000:1

That is, 1 cubic foot of superheated water will flash to 7,000 cubic feet of steam. Not fun to be standing next to that reaction.
#34
10-22-2015, 02:37 PM
 Machine Elf Guest Join Date: Feb 2007 Location: Challenger Deep Posts: 10,623
Quote:
 Originally Posted by FRE0 I don't want anything that high, but it would be nice if I could cook brown rice at 30 psi because that would make it cook faster.
My, but you're an impatient one. My Panasonic rice cooker on quick-mode can ready a batch of brown rice in about 30 minutes. I don't know how much faster rice could be cooked at 274F (the temp corresponding to 30 psig boiling). Pressure cookers are good for taking hours-long cook times and reducing them to just an hour or two; a pressure cooker that reduces my cook time from 30 minutes to 20 minutes doesn't add a lot of value.

I wonder what would happen to your cooked rice when you bled off all the pressure at the end of the cook cycle:

Quote:
 Originally Posted by Wikipedia Another method of puffing rice is "gun puffing", where the grain is conditioned to the correct level of moisture and pressurised to around 200 PSI. When the pressure is suddenly released, the pressure stored inside the kernel causes it to puff out. This method produces a puffed rice which is spongy in texture.
Quote:
 Originally Posted by FRE0 It is unclear why we cannot buy pressure cookers that operate at greater than 15 psi.
Heavy (= difficult to use), expensive to make/transport, expensive to insure the manufacturer against product liability suits, and low demand.

TL,DR: not profitable.

Last edited by Machine Elf; 10-22-2015 at 02:38 PM.
#35
10-22-2015, 03:54 PM
 Bill Door Charter Member Join Date: Nov 2003 Posts: 4,814
Quote:
 Originally Posted by FRE0 I have unsuccessfully attempted to find a pressure cooker that can be operated at more than 15 psi, perhaps 30 psi. Obviously it would cook faster, but they don't seem to be available. 30 psi is not especially high; I have an air compressor that goes up to 125 psi and it does not require any special permits. Pressurized water nuclear reactors operate at around 1,500 psi.(snip)It is unclear why we cannot buy pressure cookers that operate at greater than 15 psi.
The air compressor is an unfired pressure vessel, while the pressure cooker is fired, it may be that that's the difference. Vessels with a design temperature less than 210 degrees Fahrenheit are exempt.

ASME code Section VIII specifically exempts vessels having an internal or external pressure not exceeding 15 psi (100 kPa). I don't know why 15 psi was selected rather than 16 or 20, it's about one atmosphere of pressure, and that may be it.
#36
10-22-2015, 05:44 PM
 Earl Snake-Hips Tucker Charter Member Join Date: Jul 1999 Location: SEC Posts: 13,793
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Jinx Actually, anything above 15 psig would be considered a pressure vessel by ASME Code and require to be regulated (inspected) under state and/or Federal law. Small vessels receive a "UM" stamp, IIRC, and large vessels over some threshold require a "U" stamp. Also, pressure vessels require a pressure relief valve which has its own cycle of required ASME certified inspections. Oh, and Napier, yes the pressure rating is for a specified temp as temps above the rated temp will weaken the pressure vessel wall material,
OK, fess up! Who hacked Jinx's account?
#37
10-22-2015, 06:06 PM
 Flyer Guest Join Date: Feb 2012 Location: Colorado Posts: 2,772
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Dag Otto The BLEVE link explains "When a liquid boils it turns into a gas. The resulting gas takes up far more space than the liquid did." For superheated water flashing to steam at atmospheric pressure, that ratio is about 7000:1 That is, 1 cubic foot of superheated water will flash to 7,000 cubic feet of steam. Not fun to be standing next to that reaction.
That would be one way to steam-clean things.

Might not be in usable condition afterward, but hey--nothing's perfect.
#38
10-22-2015, 10:17 PM
 Dag Otto Guest Join Date: Sep 2003 Location: Las Cruces Posts: 5,004
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Earl Snake-Hips Tucker OK, fess up! Who hacked Jinx's account?
I laughed.
#39
10-22-2015, 10:43 PM
 Kenm Guest Join Date: Oct 2011 Location: Canada Posts: 3,314
Quote:
 Originally Posted by AaronX My friend managed to open a pressurized pressure cooker once, I heard there was food left on the ceiling. His hand and face got burnt, but he recovered ok (some scars, no loss of function).
My mother refused to use a pressure cooker because a friend had been badly hurt by an explosion.

I guess my parents were made for each other because my dad wouldn't screw in a light bulb without making sure the switch was off. A friend of his had a new light bulb blow up in his face. Had that guy not been wearing glasses, he could have been blinded.

So I won't use a pressure cooker and I won't replace light bulbs (I still have fluorescents for outdoor and basement use) without making sure the switch is off.

I think that's how religions start.
#40
10-23-2015, 08:49 AM
 Leo Bloom Member Join Date: Jun 2009 Location: Here Posts: 11,787
Quote:
Originally Posted by Machine Elf
...
I wonder what would happen to your cooked rice when you bled off all the pressure at the end of the cook cycle:

Quote:
 [excerpt from Wiki cite:]..When the pressure is suddenly released, the pressure stored inside the kernel causes it to puff out...
...
I don't understand what is meant by "pressure stored," even though experientially that is as good a way as any to describe it. But it seems kind of just-so-ish.

Before I go off to Wiki "compression,"--which is where I think I should go--after which I'll probably come back anyway, can someone put "storing pressure" into some more discrete terms?

Also, I'm guessing here, as well the thermodynamic aspects under discussion here, does the term "continuum mechanics" apply to the area of physics I think I'm getting at?

* off to check what c.m. means while he's there... *

Last edited by Leo Bloom; 10-23-2015 at 08:51 AM.
#41
10-23-2015, 10:01 AM
 Bill Door Charter Member Join Date: Nov 2003 Posts: 4,814
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Leo Bloom I don't understand what is meant by "pressure stored," even though experientially that is as good a way as any to describe it. But it seems kind of just-so-ish. Before I go off to Wiki "compression,"--which is where I think I should go--after which I'll probably come back anyway, can someone put "storing pressure" into some more discrete terms? Also, I'm guessing here, as well the thermodynamic aspects under discussion here, does the term "continuum mechanics" apply to the area of physics I think I'm getting at? * off to check what c.m. means while he's there... *
That's not really a good description. What they mean is that water inside the kernel has been heated above the boiling point at atmospheric pressure. This water has remained in the liquid phase because the external pressure around the kernel has been raised high enough to prevent boiling. When this external pressure is released the water inside the kernel flashes, or turns almost instantaneously into vapor, increasing the volume by a factor of around 1,600.
#42
10-24-2015, 05:48 PM
 Dag Otto Guest Join Date: Sep 2003 Location: Las Cruces Posts: 5,004
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Bill Door That's not really a good description. What they mean is that water inside the kernel has been heated above the boiling point at atmospheric pressure. This water has remained in the liquid phase because the external pressure around the kernel has been raised high enough to prevent boiling. When this external pressure is released the water inside the kernel flashes, or turns almost instantaneously into vapor, increasing the volume by a factor of around 1,600.
#43
10-25-2015, 03:41 PM
 FluffyBob Guest Join Date: Sep 2003 Location: Calgary Posts: 1,141
Which brings us of course to the Mythbusters Chinese Popcorn canon

Bonus points for special guest Alton Brown.

Its not your standard Pressure Cooker, but hey its a pressure cooker. I get 145 psi for 1 MPa, so that gets you over that pesky 15 psi limit. I don't think they carry it at Walmart.
#44
10-27-2015, 11:31 AM
 PlumBob Guest Join Date: Aug 2014 Location: Michigan, Metro Detroit Posts: 154
This guy has an interesting blog entry on higher pressure, pressure cooking

http://www.cookingissues.com/2011/08...ssure-cookers/

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