Yers, but you could be more succinct with “I’ve never beaten my wife.” If your interrogator insists on a yes-or-no answer, ignore him.
There’s a good book which deals with this whole issue (implicature), and others: Pragmatics, by Stephen Levinson (1983, Cambridge University Press). Pragmatics is the branch of linguistics that addresses propostional values and truth values in communication, as well as other interesting things.
As popularized in Douglas Hofstadter’s logic-math-philosophy classic Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. But I think that the more contemporary English answer would be “Huh?”. As in:
“Have you stopped beating your wife yet?”
Another good book on this subject is Everything That Linguists Have Always Wanted to Know about Logic (but Were Afraid to Ask) by James McCawley.