It’s irrelevant that all the photons are from the past…everything you see is from the past*. The reason that looking at two stars in quick succession doesn’t violate relativity is, as already pointed out, that a moving gaze doesn’t in itself transmit information.
- Although of course it depends what reference frame we’re talking about. It’s a convenience to say we’re looking 130 years back at something 130 light years away. There is no simultaneous “now”.
I don’t follow this sentence.
But yeah, your analogy works to illustrate how this is possible:
Let’s say the three of you are in a triangle and each side is 100m. So, the “speed of ball” is 20m/s (5 seconds to arrive at target).
If you ask the guys to shout when they receive a ball, you’ll hear a shout only 1 second apart (the speed of sound being so fast compared to speed of ball we’ll basically consider it instant).
So the balls “signal” just moved 100m between the two other guys in 1 second, faster than the speed of ball.
Or, if you prefer, everyone is mute and you have to wait for a return ball signal. If both the guys take the same amount of time to catch a ball and throw it back, you’ll receive the balls 1 second apart.