Does Poverty Lead (Directly) to Crime?

Emphasis mine. Examples of this include New York’s Stop, Question, and Frisk policy:

*The Stop-Question-and-Frisk program in New York City is a practice of the New York City Police Department by which police officers stop and question hundreds of thousands of pedestrians annually, and frisk them for weapons and other contraband…

…The number of stops increased dramatically in 2008 to over half a million, 88% of which did not result in any fine or conviction, peaking in 2011 to 685,724 stops, again with 88% resulting in no conviction.*

And the Broken Windows theory:

[NYC] Bratton had the police more strictly enforce the law against subway fare evasion, public drinking, public urination, graffiti vandals, and the “squeegee men” (who had been wiping windshields of stopped cars and aggressively demanding payment). Initially, Bratton received criticism for his work for going after these “petty” crimes. The general complaint about this policy was “Why care about panhandlers, hookers, or graffiti artists when there are more serious crimes to be dealt with in the city?”

If poverty leads directly to crime, then all of the poor would be committing crime.