Supposedly, Pope Gregory the Great was walking through the Roman market when he saw some slaves for sale, and, seeing how good looking they were, asked what nationality they were. When he was told they were Angles, he said “Non Angli, sed Angeli” (Not Angles, but Angels)
Oh, this story had such a VERY promising start, and it ends with a lame-o Latin pun?
Any relation to Lex?
“The Germans are used to punctuality. I have become a bit of an Italian.” - Pope Benedict XVI, making light of being late.
Not all that impressive. The guy’s name was Simon. So what Jesus was saying was “Hey, I’m gonna call you Rock, because you’re going to be the foundation of my church”. I don’t think Simon was called Peter before that point, so it doesn’t really qualify as a pun.
There are a lot of puns in the Old Testament, though. Whenever you see something like “And she called her son ____, because he would _____”, it’s almost always a pun. The name itself will mean one thing, but the justification is some other word which sounds similar, and both meanings will be relevant to the person named. And if any single human figure were to be considered central to Judaism, it’d probably be Moses, who is credited with writing several books of the Bible, so this probably meets the OP’s criteria.
Martin Gardner wrote a column about wordplay in the Bible. He said the Aramaic words for “gnat” and “camel” are respectively “galma” and “gamla”.