Over here HOAs or their ilk, are only found in blocks of flats (condos?) where they are necessary to deal with all the maintenance etc of the communal areas and the building.
The role of the HOA elsewhere is mostly taken up by the local council which apart from running all the local services like police, fire and rescue, schools, refuse collection, road maintenance and sweeping etc, controls planning which prevents me from putting anything more than a shed in my garden, stops me from having over-height fences and restricts the size of my neighbour’s extension.
If my neighbour neglects his house and lets the weeds run riot there is little I can do about it unless the weeds are really nasty like giant hogweed. I can’t make him paint his garage door or stop him from painting it pink either. All I or anyone else can do is to apply pressure and negotiate - an option with a regrettably high rate of failure.
We also have a law which says that I must disclose everything to any potential buyer, so if my neighbour plays loud music all night I have to disclose it.
In practice, the better neighbourhoods are the more mature streets with few rentals. Most people take some pride in the place where they live but short term lets with absent landlords and social housing can be problematic.
I suspect that it’s the same the world over that the quick way to assess a street is to look at the cars parked there.