African-Americans overwhelmingly identify as Christian and vote overwhelmingly Democratic. They have a lot more in common, politically, with atheists, Muslims, Buddhists and other religions/non-religions who vote Democratic, than with white rural Southerners who also overwhelmingly identify as Christian but vote deep red.
Lower class vs ownership class
The in-groups vs out-groups can encompass a wide range of traits. Skin color, religion, nationality, ethnicity, politics, gender, etc. It is based on the idea that in-group traits offers certain privileges, respect and opportunities denied to out-groups. Status is finite, and some groups enjoy more status than others. A good way to tell is what traits are over-represented among the powerful and influential. Among police, judges, politicians, etc. there are far more men, whites, christians, etc. than among the general public.
But not all in-group/out-group battles are the same. As you said, black christians are democrats despite christians being an in-group.
I think a lot of divisions are secondary to race. Religious division only really applies within white people. Even for immigration, my impression is that it is based on race. White conservatives are upset about brown skinned immigrants, they don’t mind immigrants from Canada. Trump lauded immigrants from Sweden.
What you mean to say here is that Virginia invented blackness and whiteness so that they could then codify ways to divide the working class.
Before colonization, of course there were Africans and Amerinds and different races, but black and white didn’t exist as categories of humans. It arose out of a philosophical need to decide who could be enslaved. First it was Christian vs. Heathen. Once the Heathen realized the conversion to Christianity was a simple process that gained them enormous rights, and the free laborers started taking their side, the Christian then decided a more color-based approach would address this threat to the labor supply.
Again, class is the fundamental division. “Race” and everything else is an artificial and intentional wedge to divide the working classes, in the interest of the owning classes.
Whether it’s class, race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or any other fault line, I think there is one overarching theme that differentiates elected officials (and the judiciary) between Republicans and Democrats. Republicans largely tend to favor those who are already powerful and privileged, while Democrats largely tend to favor those who lack power and privilege.
I think THIS is what really drove the Trump phenomenon in 2015 and 2016. He used Race and culture/ethnicity to build up his own movement. Keep in mind that most of his economic platform at the time was indistinguishable from Democrats. But he won a primary, first because he appealed to raceial anxiety and concerns, and second because he can rally a room like no one else on the Republican side.
There were other reasons that Trump picked up support. But I think this was the main thing that differentiated Trump from other candidates.
Yep. He said out loud what other people said in private.
I keep meeting conservatives who insist they are not racist, because in their minds a ‘racist’ is someone who literally wears a white hood. And yet over, and over, and over, research finds that racial anxiety, animus, and resentment were the strongest correlation in Trump voters. (Even compared to other Republicans)
Everyone’s self defined idea of fairness.
“It’s not fair that they have more and I have less”
“It’s not fair that I should have to give up some of my more to someone else”
“It’s not fair that I can’t do what I want”
“It’s not fair that they get to do that”