In Canada (and the USA?) it’s “obstruction of justice”. If you destroy evidence or lie to mislead the police during an investigation.
You are not required to tell the police anything (read threads here ad nauseum) but when asked, if you lie so that it misleads police, you are liable to be charged. This is why the advice is always “say nothing”. You cannot be charged for failing to tell the police. You can be charged if the information misleads. It’s up to you to convince the judge afterwards it was not intentional misleading…
You can also be charged for hiding or destroying evidence. Martha Stewart, for example, deleted the log of her broker’s phone call. Then she realized later it was a bad idea and retyped the entry into her log. They convicted her, IIRC, of obstruction for that original deletion; but could not convict her or the broker of insider trading without proof of what was said.
it used to be obstruction was for the misguided friends who helped the accused, but now it’s included in the “throw it all at the perp and bargain down” category.