A super-group, as I understand the term, is a band that combines three or four members who distinguished themselves in other groups before working together in this one. Cream comes to mind, as do Asia and the Highwaymen.
Are there any groups that are entirely people who’ve been kicked out of other successful bands? Velvet Revolver kind of qualifies (all the ex-Guns-n-Roses folks fired by Axl Rose, and the disgraced former front man of Stone Temple Pilots, Scott Weiland). There was also a band called The Last Hard Men, featuring Kelley Deal, Sebastian Bach and Jimmy Chamberlain. I don’t think they lasted more than a year.
Are there any more solid examples of this?