Can a phone without a sim card be called by the people operating the telephone network?

An Iphone, and I believe it is a legal requirement for all phones, even without a SIM card, can call the emergency line without a SIM card that would give it a number to call and call to.

Anyway, a while ago I remembered a tv commercial from the government about the emergency number. Among other things it said that they record your number so that they can call you back if something goes wrong like your call gets cut off or something. So, can they call you back even if you dont have a SIM card? Since you can call yourself from a phone without SIM card.

This stuff about the emergency line might not apply to the country that you live in, but the question remains.

If a GSM/WCDMA/LTE phone doesn’t have a SIM card inserted but is turned on in appropriate network coverage, it is called “Emergency Camped”. This allows you to dial a short list of emergency phone numbers. The actual tracking and routing of the call on your side is done via the IMEI of the phone.

The SIM card is what would define your phone number. Without it, you simply don’t have one. So there is no call-back number. That being said, it is technically possible for your cell provider to make your phone ring. If they actually knew which phone they wanted to call.
The people your emergency call was routed to? Probably not.