There are several possible paths that the bits on an Audio CD can path their way thru a computer. femtosecond mentions one, another is via a little cable that hooks from the back of the CD-ROM drive to the sound card. (Usually grey, 3-4 wires, black plug on one end, white on the other.) These two can lead to the phenomena Tarkus is experiencing. In both, the CD-ROM drive directly decodes the digital signal and passes on an analog signal. The CD-ROM drive is playing at 1x speed for both of these. (Or is supposed to. Hence the problem.)
There are digital ways as well. There is CD/A: direct digital extraction, which most modern CD-ROM drive supports. The signal is passed on via the IDE connector. There is also the SPDIF cable method, not alot of hardware supports this. Both the CD-ROM and the motherboard or sound card need SPDIF connectors to support this (and a cable as well). None of these should lead to the problem described.
One solution then might to determine if one of the digital methods can be used instead. Check the input options available on the software to play CDs, also check the OS’s sound-out “device” options. (These are software choices, not all of which correspond to real devices.)
Since you didn’t mention platform, OS, player, etc. You’re on your own.