In the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode “Children of Time”, the U.S.S. Defiant and its crew of 49 people goes through an energy field orbiting a planet, and finds a colony inhabited by 8,000 people, mostly humans with a smattering of people with Klingon and Trill DNA.
The people of the planet, Gaia, are their descendants. A few days after meeting their descendants, the Defiant is set to have an accident take place, marooning them on Gaia 200 years in the past. Kira dies a few days later in this timeline, because she was injured getting to Gaia, and couldn’t get back to DS9 for medical attention.
In real life, is 200 years enough time for exactly 47 people (Kira is dead, and Odo can’t procreate) to multiply to a thriving colony of almost 8,000?