Do all covid-19 vaccines use mRNA technology?

Both of the vaccines approved in the US are mRNA-based, but is that true for all of the vaccines developed for this disease? Are there any foreign vaccines using the older vaccine technology, such as those that use an inactivated pathogen or a subunit of a virus?

I’m not anti-vaccination generally, but I’m a bit leery of new medical technology and drugs. (Right now, I couldn’t get the vaccine even if I were eager for it. My state doesn’t have enough available.)

AstraZeneca’s (the Oxford) vaccine is a modified adenovirus. Other vaccines in the works are also non-mrna-based.


I admit, I’d prefer the Oxford vaccine if I had a choice, but I will take whichever one is made available to me first.

The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is also an adenovirus vector.

Phrama biochemist Derek Lowe’s “In The Pipeline” blog in Science Translational Medicine is a good critical overview of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines as well as developments in pharmacology in general. I’ve been following it for several years; I was initially introduced to it from his “Things I Won’t Work With” posts but have since followed because of his insights into biochemistry and pharmacology.