As an alien living in the US for nearly 8 years, I’ve found a number of differences in civil rights. There are actually three classes of people here: citizens, permanent resident aliens, and other aliens (including those on student visas and on temporary employment visas).
(1) vote or register to vote;
(2) run for political office;
(3) sign certain petitions (e.g., those nominating candidates for election and those proposing issues for referenda;
(4) circulate those petitions;
(5) work in some government jobs.
Aliens who are not permanent residents cannot make financial contributions to political parties or candidates.
In addition, citizens cannot be deported for any reason, unless their citizenship is also taken away from them.