I have never been to europe , but I can see that the people that we in English speaking countries call Dutch don’t refer to themselves that way . They use the word “Hollander” , a logical choice since Holland is the name of their country . My question ,though, is whether the word, Dutch , is an entirely English word or is it a historically “Dutch” word which English has borrowed? And do the Dutch people ever use that word in every day language ? I hope that some"Dutch" person will give his input .
“Dutch” is a corruption of “Deutsch,” whch means “German.” It’s common and accepted here in the U.S., but can be a little rankling to those Nederlanders who dislike Germans.
“Holland” is the name of a part (actually two parts) of the Netherlands; it’s common to use it for the whole country, but not strictly correct.
And the word Dutch was once much more broadly applied, and meant any person or dialect from the present-day-Netherlands all the way down to the Alps.
The Pennsylvania Dutch (really German) religious communities in the U.S. are good examples of that. They mostly came, IIRC, from southern Germany and Switzerland*, but Dutch meant German in those days so that was what their neighbors called them.
*in fact the founder of one such group, the Hutterites, was the Swiss John Hutter.
Coldy may back you up on that, but my experience was completely different. I went into a shop, there, looking for a translating dictionary and asked the owner if he had a Nederlanse/Engels word book and was haughtily reprimanded that I wanted an English/Dutch Dictionary. When I did buy one (not there) the English title was “Engish/Dutch.”
Yeah, the LANGUAGE that people in the Netherlands speak is Dutch. Just like we don’t speak American, they don’t speak Netherlander.
The name “Dutch” is related to “Teutonic.” In Modern Dutch, Duits means ‘German’.
(The Dutch call themselves Nederlands.)
“Dutch/Deutsch/Duits” comes from Middle Dutch Duutsch, corresponding to Old English þeodisc, Old Saxon thiudisc, and Gothic þiudisko, and all these go back to the Common Germanic form *theudiskaz, meaning ‘of the people’. The “people” being the Germanic people, the Teutons. From this Germanic source also comes Italian tedesco, ‘German’.
In Old English þeod means ‘people’ (recall the cavalry companies of Rohan in The Lord of the Rings were called éothéod, literally ‘horse people’ [Old English éo ‘horse’ is related to Latin equus and Sanskrit aSva]). This is cognate with Gothic þiuda, ‘people’.
All these are from the Proto-Indo-European *teuta, ‘people, tribe’. Other Indo-European words from this root are Old Irish tuatha (as in the mythical Tuatha De Danann ‘the people of the Goddess Danu’), Lithuanian tauta ‘nation’, Oscan-Umbrian touto, ‘city’, Welsh tud, ‘territory’.
This PIE root is clearly derived from *teut- ‘meet, join’, as social groupings like tribes and nations are made by the joining of people. It also produced the Latin totus ‘all, whole’, giving us words like total and tutti frutti. An extension of the root produced PIE *teutonos, ‘ruler, chief, queen’, from whence come the Illyrian name Teutona, the Gaulish name Toutonos, and the Gothic word þiudans ‘king’; the related Old English word is þeoden, which takes us again back to Rohan, where the king’s name is Théoden.
That is absolutely spot-on, Jomo Mojo.
Take the opening line of our national anthem:
“Wilhelmus van Nassouwe
Ben ick van Duytschen Bloedt”
(William of Nassau, am I of common blood)
Here, Duytschen is often mistaken for the modern Dutch Duits, meaning German. But it means “of the people” in middle Dutch. Mind you, most DUTCH people don’t even know this - they think it means “German” too. Don’t feel embarrassed.
Why did William call himself “of common blood”? Because the Netherlands was a Republic at the time, fighting the Spanish opression. William of Orange, as he’s known in history class, led the uprising that resulted in the liberation of the Netherlands, upon which he was pronounced King.
The English word Dutch is a bastardisation of the middle Dutch word Duytsch.
The Dutch do not, as a rule, dislike Germans. There is some animosity alright, but some of you may be surprised that it mostly stems from us unjustly losing the 1974 football world cup final, rather than from WWII.
The country is officially called Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (“Kingdom of the Netherlands”), or the Netherlands for short. We use the singular version, and call it Nederland. The term Holland is a widely used but factually incorrect decription: it really only comprises the provinces Noord Holland and Zuid Holland. Logically, an inhabitant is called Nederlander rather than Hollander, but both are used widely and interchangeably.
We use the word “Duits” in everyday language (“German”), but not Duytsch - it’s gone out of style, so to speak. So no, there is no modern Dutch equivalent of the English word “Dutch”.
At the time the Pennsylvania Dutch settled down, The Netherlands had been in existance for quite a while. Why they settled on “Dutch” rather than “German”, I don’t know. The Dutch were busy running Nieuw Amsterdam at the time, a village commonly known as New York these days.
So if Dutch meaning “Netherlander” and Deutsch meaning “German” are derived from the same root, then…?
And Coldfire, I didn’t mean that Dutch folk dislike Germans (though Mom does, a bit), I meant that those who do are more likely than those who don’t to get huffy about being called “Dutch.”
I knew that “Dutch” and ''Deutsch" and “teutonic” were all related to each other. But I never knew that the english use of the word “Dutch” stems from “Duytsch” and William of Orange’s successful revolt against Spanish rule. This quite nicely answers my question.