I think the OP is misusing the term “turbine” to mean “some sort of spinning generator”.
For large scale electrical power generation (residential and industrial service), coal and nukes are the big guys. They do most of the work. Natural gas and hydroelectric do some, but they aren’t as big. All of the “green” energies like solar and wind are just a tiny drop in the bucket. So, yeah, almost all of the power generation comes from spinning generators of some sort, and most of it is from steam turbines.
Right now, if you need a big honking bunch of power, in most places you realistically have a choice between coal or nukes, so unfortunately it’s a choice of do you want to ruin the planet with greenhouse gases or do you want to make some god-awful stuff that will poison some part of the earth for such a long time that it’s difficult to even wrap your mind around it. Everyone is talking about green energy, but in the near future, there’s no hope at all for anything “green” to make a realistic dent in the world’s power needs. Wind farms take up huge amounts of real estate and don’t provide all that much power compared to a large nuke or coal plant. Damming up a river for hydroelectric has huge ecological repercussions, and many rivers are being used almost to capacity as it is and can’t afford to have someone slow down the flow at all. Geothermal and other sources are just too limited to be a major provider. They are good for some small applications (Iceland, for example), but you aren’t going to power the world’s power grids from them.
The one thing that (IMHO) really does have hope for the future is solar. Back when I first started engineering school, solar power was so ungodly expensive that no one could afford it, not even the rich. Now, if you’re a movie star or some other person who is definitely a few tax brackets over my head, you can actually afford to power your home with solar. In the long run you’ll end up paying significantly more than what the power company would charge you, but if you are wealthy, you can do it. It’s a bit too much of a burden for us poor folks right now though.
However, solar is getting cheaper, and fossil fuels and nukes aren’t. As long as this continues, it won’t be too much longer before solar can realistically compete with the power companies. Then things could get interesting. Right now, our electrical supply is based on big honking plants with great big wires getting it to where it needs to go. With solar, though, the generation would be right at your house. You could power your home and maybe even plug in your electric car at night and would no longer need to be connected to the grid like you are now. Big power plants could eventually become a thing of the past, or at least would see only limited use in areas where the sunlight sucks.
Personally, I don’t think that this sort of thing is really that far away into the future. Some areas already have state or local incentives that make solar competitive with the power company. As the price of solar continues to drop, it won’t be long before these incentives will no longer be necessary.