I just finished building a rec room in the basement. There were countless instances when I had to drill a pilot hole (a.k.a. “thread hole”) for a wood screw. In most of those cases, I did not want the hole to go all the way through the wood. So I marked the required depth on the drill bit with a piece of masking tape. This told me when to stop.
The biggest problem was controlling the drill. I had to be very careful not to push too hard, else the drill bit would go all the way through the wood. This happened quite a few times, unfortunately.
So I found an easy solution: do not use a power drill to drill thread holes for wood screws! Instead, use an old-fashion had drill like this.
A hand drill is very light, and the rotational speed is slow enough to allow precise control of drill bit depth. Very simple, very eloquent.
After I started using the hand drill, I never accidently drilled all the way through the wood.