These answers are essentially correct, but I think fail to clear up the confusion behind the question.
All cars, injected or carbureted, have throttle plates (throttles).
As mentioned, in some carburetors the throttles are (or throttle is) in the main body of the carb. In others, they are in a separate detachable portion of the carb which is called a throttle body. This is the official correct term for that part of the carb, which can be seen in repair manuals and rebuild instruction sheets.
Fuel injected cars have their throttles in discrete throttle bodies, as obviously it’s not possible for the throttles to be in the main body of the carb.
NOT ALL FUEL INJECTED CARS HAVE THROTTLE BODY INJECTION.
The phrase “throttle body injection” – the complete phrase, all three words together – refers to systems where the injectors (usually two) are located in a housing just above the throttle body, delivering the gas in the same place a carburetor would. This is in contrast to “port fuel injection” (sometimes named differently, e.g. multiport injection, sequential injection, etc.) where there is one injector per cylinder, located in the intake port. This puts the fuel delivery closer to the cylinder, which is more efficient, which is why throttle body injection has been abandoned for port injection.
But again, even port injected cars have throttle bodies. What they do not have is throttle body injection.
So, some carbureted cars had throttle bodies, but they were a portion of the carburetor, not discrete units such as we see on injected cars.
Carburetors were replaced with fuel injection systems, but not necessarily with throttle body injection systems. The first electronic fuel injection (Bosch type) was port injection. Its prototype debuted in the 50’s, and the developed system was used on European cars in the 70’s (and maybe late 60’s). I didn’t see any throttle body injection until the 80’s, when the American manufacturers started designing their own fuel injection. During the 80’s and 90’s when fuel injection was becoming common, both throttle body injection and port injection were widely used.
We hear the term “throttle body” a lot more nowadays because fuel injected cars – both throttle body injected and port injected – have throttle bodies which are stand-alone parts, like fuel injectors and fuel pumps are stand-alone parts.
I believe the last carbureted car sold in the U.S. was a '90 or '91 Subaru Justy.