Okay, I’m taking my logic midterm today and I’m still confused on one part. Hope you guys can help me out.
The professor talked about universal and statistical generalizations in lecture. He then talked about Affirmative and Negative Universal generalizations as well as Affirmative and Negative Existential generalizations.
Here’s my problem. When testing for validity using the three rules:
The middle term must be distributed exactly once. The middle term must be distributed in one of the premises and undistributed in the other premise. The middle term does not occur in the conclusion.
No end term can be distributed exactly once. The S term can be distributed in the conclusion iff it is distributed in a premise; the same is true for the P term.
The number of negative conclusions must equal the number of negative premises. That is to say, there can be a negative conclusion iff there is exactly one negative premise.
the book says that in universal generalizations the subject is distributed and in negative generalizations the predicate is distributed. The professor agrees with this. I can’t get my mind around what, exactly, a negative generalization is, except that it applies to these generalizations. What am I to do with Negative Universal generalizations? Are S & P both distibuted in this case? Is that even possible (to have S&P both distibuted)?
I guess I need clarification on what they mean by negative. I suspect they mean somethig different than negative universal and negative existential when using the term negative, but I could be wrong, and that would no bode well for this midterm today. Help! Please…