The phrase came from an old comedy routine by Pigmeat Markham. Markham had a minor hit with a record of it about the time Laugh-In was starting out (I believe he was doing it on stage long before that). They stole the catchline, but later made it up to Markham by hiring him as part of the regular cast.
It was pretty much what it sounded like. Markham played a judge in the sketch, and would do a sort of proto-rap saying “Here come da judge.” I doubt it had any other connotations; it was the repetition and the rapping that made it funny.
Technically true, except for the “as you probably know” part. Almost everybody in the country associated the phrase with Aretha Franklin’s version of “Respect,” which came out just a few months later and was several orders of magnitude more popular.