The University of Hull traces its roots roots all the way back to 1927.
Until well into the 19th century (when various “Redbricks” were founded: I think Durham, was first, in 1832, then London in 1836, with most major cities acquiring universities by the end of the century), the only universities in England were Oxford and Cambridge. Scotland, however, had a number of universities with longer histories: St Andrews (the oldest I think, going back to the early 15th century), Edinburgh, Glasgow, and I think Aberdeen.
I am not exactly sure of the answer to the OP’s question, but I do know that there was a major university reform movement, including curriculum reform, in England (it is important to distinguish the English and Scottish situations here, as the systems were quite separate and different) in the early 19th century. This was connected with the coming of the Redbricks, but began earlier, I think in Cambridge in the 1820s. One of the leading figures in the movement was William Whewell, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and University Vice-Chancellor* (the Wikipedia entry on Whewell downplays his role in university reform to an extent that I suspect is thoroughly misleading). Up to this time, the English universities had been overwhelmingly concerned with preparing students for a career in the Anglican clergy, and an important aspect of the reforms was to introduce more natural science and mathematics into the curriculum (Whewell began his career as a math professor). Although there had been professors of mathematics and various natural sciences in the English universities since medieval times, there was, before the 19th century, little incentive (beyond personal interest) for any undergraduates to study these subjects. Notoriously, when Isaac Newton was professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, in the 17th century, he often lectured to an empty room.
The Scottish universities, however, had been more science oriented for quite some time, and Edinburgh, in particular, was dominated by its medical school, long considered the best in Europe. I believe American undergraduate education was largely modeled on the Scottish, not the English universities (and when American universities developed graduate schools,in the later 19th century, their model was the German university system).
I doubt, however, that the medieval trivium and quadrivium (or “seven liberal arts”) were still in force in England up to the 19th century. For one thing, I believe that there were also major university reforms in England at the time of the English Civil War (17th century). I have an idea Wadham College, Oxford played a large role at this time.
*Note that in Britain, it is the Vice-Chancellor who actually runs a university. The Chancellor is a figurehead, often a member of the royal family or similar.