I am German, went to school in the late 1960s/1970s/early 1980s. I imagine we learned much more about Nazism than pupils in the decades before as our teachers were of the generation that first made an issue of people’s complacency about history in the 1960s.
Primary school (age 6-9): no history that I remember. History (except a bit of local history) was not on the syllabus. So, in the terms of the OP, ‘little’ Germans do in fact get taught about nothing.
Secondary school (Gymnasium in my case; age 10-18): in stage I (age 10-15) Weimar Republic and Nazi period were studied in chronological sequence and in stage II (16-18) we had a half-year unit on Third Reich. In both cases the Nazi period was the subject for half a year or so. What we learned was what you’d expect to learn from any history book, about
- anti-democratic holdovers in the Weimar Republic in judiciary/military/civil service
- far-right groups in the Weimar Republic, assassinations by them
- the early NSDAP
- the troubles of the increasingly desperate governments 1929-1933
Machtergreifung events, abolition of other parties, Gleichschaltung, the methods of consolidation of power
- the concentration camp system and its application first to political opponents then minorities
- ‘euthanasia’, T4
- expansionist politics, remilitarization of Rhineland
- Danzig Corridor and ‘terror’ by Poland made propaganda issues
- Hitler-Stalin pact, Gleiwitz, attack on Poland, outbreak of WW II
- first military successes; occupation regimes, resistances
- persecution of Jews etc., Einsatzgruppen, death camps. The pictures that you’d expect to see about that.
- military defeat, occupation.
The first treatment was more broad and chronological, the second focused more on the methods of holding on to power, Gleichschaltung and propaganda.
BTW it was not so much a matter of being taught about Hitler as about being taught about Nazism. Discourse on Nazism that I read of in the English-speaking world seems to treat the Third Reich as if it had been Hitler’s personal show.
In German class some of the books read/discussed were on the Nazi period (e.g. Anna Sehgers’ “The Seventh Cross”). In literary history we touched on the Blut und Boden literature but just in excerpts.
What I personally did not take part in was an excursion to a concentration camp (no major, preserved one in the region) and school/class visits by Holocaust survivors (something that seems to have been frequently organized only beginning in the 1980s/1990s; nowadays you see newspaper reports about such a school event in the region).
In religion class at school and in confirmation class (outside school) the churches’ failure, those churchmen who let themselves being coopted and the few resisters were an issue. Again, teachers and pastors were relatively young and progressive.
What people retain of all of this of course varies very much. Teenagers being teenagers I suspect that for a lot of people it’s “into one ear, out of the other ear” as we say.
As for continuing education, some magazines like Spiegel do a good job with miniseries of articles focusing on specific aspects that the anniversry cycle has got around to on that year. Again, a lot of people don’t read ‘serious’ journalism.