In what ways do humans anatomically differ from other great apes like orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees or bonobos? What evolutionary pressures drove these changes? What advantages do they provide?
Let me start with a few which you can comment on or add to:
1: Having a small amount of fur and sweating mean unusually effective cooling which enables persistence hunting and more hours of activity.
2: Bipedalism freed up two limbs to carry objects and use tools. There may be other advantages like a higher vantage point but the environment can provide that too.
3: I vaguely remember hearing that human shoulders are unusual in their range of motion and the way they apply strength. Is this accurate? What would be the benefits of that?
My guess is that it would have been useful to manipulate objects at eye level or above. It would also have been useful to carry heavier objects on the head or shoulders. It could also have been extremely useful for throwing rocks and spears. Rocks may not be great as an offensive weapon but they could dissuade predators. Spears would have been revolutionary stand-off weapons, the equivalent of today’s cruise missiles. Since early spears would likely have been made of wood with a fire-hardened tip, is it possible that spear use could go back a million years or more?
4: The part of the body which differs most is likely the brain; That’s what leads to non-anatomical differences. I’m guessing the prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain which shows the greatest difference. Are there subcomponents of the PFC which show even greater difference than the PFC as a whole?
“Humans” here can be used in the sense of hominids. If you mean specifically homo sapiens sapiens, please use that term or “HSS”.