I believe this to be a factual question, so I put it in GQ. However, I’ll understand the need to move it if there’s more speculation than fact to the answer.
In 2015, Ramadan will begin June 18th. Devout muslims who are not exempt from the requirement fast from sunrise to sunset, for an entire lunar month.
This is certainly workable at lower latitudes, where the length of the days generally don’t vary all that much. In Kabul, Afghanistan for example, summer days last about 14.5 hours, and winter days about 10 hours.
However, go to the higher latitudes, and things get a little more problematic: Fairbanks, Alaska for example. While days last only a bit over 3.5 hours there in December, days last about 21 hours there in June. 21 hour fasts followed by a large meal are not particularly good practices for pregnant women and for a lot of other folks who are not normally considered particularly ill.
What do practicing muslims living in Fairbanks, or Murmansk, or Trondheim. or Ushuaia do? Can they fast from sunrise to sunset, Mecca time? Or are other rules applied?