How do you test a relay?

I have a car with electric windows. The passenger window is sticking/working poorly. I have checked the fuse (when it didn’t work the last time), but the shop manual says the next step is to check the relay.

How do you do this with minimal tools (no multimeter)?

use a bulb the same voltage as the motor.

though sticking could also indicate a mechanical problem as well.

I would swap it with another one and see if the problem follows the relay.

That’s how I do it. And use an existing relay before buying one. In the fusebox, there will hopefully be another relay for something else which you can use in the window relay slot temporarily for testing.

Doh. I should have thought of the swap.
The manual says that this is the next thing to do. It could also be the rocker switch that isn’t working. I (as the manual) am going through the easy things to do before I have to take the door apart.

Honestly, a very basic multi meter is $10 or so. Very useful for any sort of car work, and if you plan on doing any electrical work at all, it’s a must.

Other than that, I go with the lightbulb idea, though a multimeter will allow you to check all the inline items. Switch, relay, wires (could be a simple break in a wire, inside the insulation… which happens on my back speakers, regardless of which car I’ve owned… all 5 of them since I turned 18) etc…

I am kind of living out of 2 houses – the house that we’re packing up has my tools, including 2 multimeters. 150 miles away.