What would happen to us if all of a sudden (and ignoring all other factors like gravity and what not) the rotation of the earth sped up or slowed down and our day was not the same length?
If tomorrow, the days were 42 hours instead of 24, would we still sleep for 8-10 hours and then have 34 hours to work? Would our bodies slowly change so that we slept 14-16 hours at a time and were then awake for 28 hours at a time?
What about in the other direction? What if days were suddenly 8 hours long. Would we sleep for a day and then stay awake for two, or would we adjust so that we still slept for 2-3 hours when it was dark and then stayed awake for 5-6 hours at a time?
I should clarify I am not asking for opinions about what we would do culturally to adjust, I am interested in the biological effects on us. If it makes it any easier, ask how it would effect deer or some other animal that is not concerned with putting in an 8-hour work shift or other artificial divisions of our time.