I’ve wondered this question several times myself, and being a pilot, I decided to find it out myself. This is what I learned (sorry, no cites, mainly just personal experience and various notes of wisdom from many sources over the years)
On an airliner, most (99%) of what you hear is the engines. Especially at cruise and takeoff… I highly doubt any of what you hear is wind noise.
They’re soundproofed quite well, and my understanding is that most of what you hear is coming through the metal structure of teh plane (which is why when an aircraft goes supersonic, the engines can still be heard in the cockpit)
The sound of drag would be near-nonexistant in a large pressurized and soundproofed aircraft. They try to keep drag to a minimum (more drag = more fuel = more $$$) While it does get louder as you increase speed, at the high altitudes that airliners fly at, airspeed is indicated much lower than the groundspeed. Therefore, as their speed and altitude increases, wind noise should stay around the same level.
As an interesting aside to that point; some large airliners may be flying at as low as tens of knots (indicated air speed) above their indicated stall speed (which does not change in straight and level flight) when they’re crusing at altitude.
Stand under an airliner when it’s landing, it will be extremely quiet… About as quiet as they are when idling on the ground, you probably won’t hear any wind noise at all. (and that’s with flaps and gear down) Likewise, in the aircraft, when they reduce their power before landing, you usually cannot hear the engines (compared to cruise anyways) Although you can usually hear the drag when the gear and flaps are lowered. (although it’s usually, in my experience, just a slight raise in the background noise.) But at cruise, you’re hearing engine noise.
Actually quite interesting. I’d love to go in to aircraft design if my math was stronger.
Oh, and sorry if this is a little scattered (or completely unreadable due to bad grammar) It’s been a long day. (Wasn’t I supposed to go flying today?)