My father told me that Linus Pauling once assigned a graduate student the task of searching all applicable and available literature to determine if there were a viable method of doing this. At that time there wasn’t. I’ve never heard this anecdote from anybody else, and I don’t know any more about it than just that fact. If anybody else knows more about this, please speak up.
AFAIK, it is now possible to pinpoint a person’s age by measuring the racemization of aspartic acid in their teeth. Apparently this is done by measuring the ratio of the dextro and levo enantiomorphs, which changes in a constant and predictable manner throughout a human’s lifespan.
The other night I was watching a crime drama in which the coroner glibly announced to the investigating detectives that she had determined the victim’s exact age by measuring the amount of blah blah blah in the vic’s eyeball. Don’t know anything about it, but if nobody else comes forward, I’ll dig through the TiVo trash and see if I can find it. I think it was SVU—the episode that was on last week about the murdered female astronaut.