This study analyzed a huge amount of data on complaints filed against cops. The study wanted to test the usual police defense when asked about excessive police force, that the offending cops are “just a few bad apples”.
Surprisingly, that defense is correct. It IS just a few bad apples who rack up almost all of the complaints. Between two and ten percent of cops are bad, depending at how many complaints you draw the line. And these bad apples STAY bad, year after year. More alarmingly, they also stay in the police force, which is a very bad thing. because they influence other cops in a bad way. They also cost the police force a lot, both in money ( settlements) as well as in diminished trust by the public in the police
So it’s really quite simple. Any cop racking up more then a certain amount of independent complaints, should leave the force.