Japanese zoo management vs. American/European zoo management

I came across this book Zoo and Aquarium History (2000) by Vernon Kisling. On Page 308 he makes the comment that ‘the curatorial system of American/European zoos does not exist in Japan’ and that instead they have some line of supervisors. He continues onto the next page or so about it.

I’m not familiar with zoo management, so what exactly did he mean. I look forward to your feedback.

As of 2000, many zoos in the western hemisphere had already begun changing their habitats for animals that were more consistent with their natural environment. This required capital expansion, etc. to make this change. At that time, many Japanese zoos still had rudimentary cages and simple environments to display the animals, much like the west a few decades ago.

It is my understanding since 2000, Japan has made an effort to upgrade their zoos as well, and that Kisling’s criticism may not still be valid.

Zoos are like the NFL - the more fun it is for the spectators, the worse it is for the participants.