I’m agreeing with all the comments so far, but I think I’d reword slightly.
There is no formal doctrine in Judaism about what happens after death. The Jewish Bible has almost NO direct reference to the topic; there are a few scattered poetic comments.
From those few comments, there has been a great deal of interpretation by the rabbis through the centuries. Akat’s first paragraph lists a few of those, there are many others. Some of the rabbinic thought has been in reaction to Christian theology.
But I think the most general modern consensus is that death is death. There is no “after-life” per se, but the righteous (regardless of religious affiliation) will be awakened from death when the Messiah comes. The definition of “righteous” is, as Akat says, up to God; but we have been told through the Law what that means in general terms.
On the topic of “salvation”:
I think that the strongest line of Jewish thought has been that personal immortality is NOT what it’s all about. “Salvation” is irrelevant. Life is all about doing deeds of lovingkindness, life is NOT about “salvation.” (Salvation in Judaism in the past – when mentioned in prayers, for isntance – has often meant being rescued from intolerable situations on earth, such as persecutions.)
The issue of “salvation” is just not relevant in Judaism. I don’t know how to put this, except perhaps by reverse example. Imagine asking a Christian how they can be holy if they don’t keep kosher. The Christian would be puzzled by the question --ne doesn’t try to be holy, and keeping kosher has nothing to do with it.
The reaction of a Jew to the question about salvation is (or should be) similar. In Judaism, one tries to aspire to holiness, in this world; salvation has nothing to do with it.