Its true to say that longer cranks give you more leverage, I have ridden on 165, 170, and 172.5 and yes you can turn a larger gear, and yes you can go faster - to a point. It may affect your endurance.
Longer cranks require you to turn slightly more slowly, and can affect your speed when climbing.
Shorter cranks mean you have to ride on a lower gear but it can be useful on banked tracks or on short criterium races where you corner hard and fast.
To work out what works for you, its really a question of measuring your power output against your endurance, and comparing different crank lengths.
The reality is that you can’t switch between crank lengths any more than you can change your saddle height or any other measurement, not quickly - you can move things a little at a time but its always going to be within limits that are imposed by your stature.
Changing between machines with different crank lengths is not at all easy, one day on one machine and the next on another. It takes so long to adapt that you haven’t got the time, not if you want to maintain your performance - you find you have to stick with one length.
I always find that if someone is telling me they cannot spin the top gear any faster, it means they are riding overgeared - they just do not have the power to spin any faster. I’ve seen this again and again.
Remember that the pros can’t spin top gear at maximum revs for long, and they are up at 40-45mph when they are doing it, in a bunch.
If you want to improve your cadence, then you need to train specifically for it, and that will mean using rollers - not fixed frame home trainers. There is a reason why pros use rollers - it conditions the riding style to spin the cranks.
I reckon on rollers you should be able to spin the cranks at 140 rpm as a constant rate, with intervals of increased rates of up to 180 rpm. If you work on this you will find that you learn to ride in lower gears and spin, you’ll also find that you can spin on easy hills without changing gear.
I should add that longer cranks also can mean that you find it can make breathing harder - you tend to find that your knees come up higher and this can make your diaphragm difficult to compress.
In absolute physics terms, well power is torque X revs (radians/sec if you really want to go in that direction) So if you lengthen the cranks, and then turn them slower, you increase the torque and decrease rpm, so the power output remains the same.