Most complex human-powered device

What is the most complex human-powered device?

Such devices seem to come in two flavors: indirect and direct. Indirect are those where a human compresses a spring and then the expanding spring actually runs the device. Or humans could create potential energy by hand some other way (pulling up on a weight, for example) which then powers the device. Wind-up watches, grandfather clocks, and various other clock-work devices fall into the indirect human-powered devices.

Direct are those where there’s no intermediate potential energy storage. Bicycles are a good example of this. Also calculators and cash registers (the kind you have to pull a lever after pressing the keys).

Anyone know of any particularly complex examples of these two kinds? Some especially complicated watch or other clockwork mechanism? Or perhaps a very complex card sorter where you have to turn a handle to run it? Or perhaps some other device I haven’t thought of?

Note: I’m not interested in cases where the potential energy is electricity stored in a battery. So wind up radios and computers are right out.

The hand cranked Difference Engine Number 2 has 8000 parts and was designed by Charles Babbage in 1847-1849 and was not completed until 2002. The Difference Engine Number 1 had over 25000 parts but was never built. I don’t know if that is anywhere close to the record, but it deserves mention.

Curta mechanical calculator?

Pipe organs used to be human powered, but I’m not sure how complex they became before they switched to motor-driven bellows.

At first, I thought the Jacquard loom would have been the most complex directly human powered device, but I forgot that a Babbage Engine was actually built a few years ago. I’d imagine that would be the most complex direct-powered device.

As for indirect-powered devices, my bet is on an automatic watch of some sort that tracks moon phases and dates, with a chronograph. Does anyone know how many moving parts such a timepiece might have?

Try this Phillipe Patak with 686 parts.

A watch with just chronograph, date and moon phase is simple in comparison with this. They run a couple of hundred parts. The big ticket items in this watch are repeater (it chimes believe it or not) and the tourbillion escapement.