A lot of new world plants were brought back to Europe for consumption: the tomato, potato, squash, etc… But apart from the turkey, I can’t think of any new world animals that have made it big in the Old World. I doubt that opossum and raccoon are common table foods in France or Germany. And I don’t know how popular turkey is either.
Any one know of examples of New World species commercially grown and consumed in the Old World?
The turkey is really the only one of any significance. Next in importance is the Muscovy Duck, which was domesticated in Mexico and Central America, and is still kept widely. It is not nearly as popular as domestic breeds derived from the Mallard, however. Llamas and guinea pigs were raised for meat in South America, but never caught on in the Old World other than as pets. Bison were never domesticated by Native Americans, although they are raised domestically now.
Yeah, basically the nomadic natives did not domesticate any significant variety of food animals. Llamas were mainly beasts of burden; Jared Diamond’s “Guns Germs and Steel” goes into a lot of detail about why various places around the world did not have good choices for domestic animals.
Buffalo, for example, were apparently sufficiently numerous (and ornery) that domestication was not worth while.
At the time of contact, most of the native societies of the New World were not nomadic but agricultural. As the OP mentioned, they had domesticated a wide variety of crops, including some of the most important ones worldwide today such as corn and the potato.
Salmon and trout are not New World Species. Salmon are anadromous, meaning they live most of their life in the ocean but return to fresh water to spawn. They are found throughout the world. Here is a link about Atlantic Salmon and the list of countries where they are found is at the bottom.