There’s a lot. A lot. Head over to www.boardgamegeek.com for full details. Here are some of my favourites. I notice you have Argicola, so I am listing games which I think are after that.
Stone Age: You control a tribe during the Stone Age, having to gather food, bake bricks and etc. Like Argicola, you can reproduce to get more workers, but the food requirements go up. However, it is easier to get food. The draw here is the resources gathering mechanic. For each worker you assign to one resource, you roll 1d6 and total up. If you are gathering food, divide by 2; wood by 3, brick by 4 and so on. There’s lot more than this short summar (like Argicola, there are many ways to score points)
Cyclades. You are one of the Greek cities seeking to control the islands of Cyclades. You build armies, fleets and buildings during the course of the game through a bidding system; to build armies, you have to bid on Ares, to build priests, Zeus. Different gods give you different action. To win, you must build (or conquer) and hold 2 metropolis by the end of the turn.
Dominion: One of the darlings of BoardGameGeek, this plays like Magic The Gathering with the deck building being part of the game. Cards cost money to put into your deck, so cards you buy will eventually turn up in your hand through draws. Each turn you are allowed 1 buy and 1 action, and there are cards which allow you to chain actions (For example, some cards give you +1 dollar, +2 actions, +1 buy). There are already 4 expansions so far. Each box comes with 20 cards, and each game you randomly choose 10 set of cards, or choose from a predefined list, so the replayability is high. There’s also Thunderstone, a fantasy variant.
World Without End. ‘Sequel’ to Pillars of the Earth, it is a totally new game though. The main draw of this game the random event cards. On each card there are 4 resources, and you orient the card such that the resource you want points to you. This means that the other players will get the resources which are facing them, so you have to consider that you are not giving them resources that they want. The game draws inspiration from Agricola that there are taxes to pay, you need food to survive and must demonstrate piety.
Kingsburg. I can’t remember if this is during or after Argicola, so pardon me the OP already know of this. The aim of this game is to build up your province (Heroes of Might and Magic style) and you gather resources by influencing advisor. To do so, you roll 3 dice. Each advisor is given a number from 1 to 18. When it is your turn to influence an advisor, you take the dice that forms the number of the advisor and put it there. Normally one advisor can be influenced by one player. At the end of each year monsters will invade your province and you must have enough armies to fight them.
Small World. A quick and light war game where the goal is to gather as many victory points as possible by conquering regions on a map. There are a number of races to choose from, with each race with a special ability, plus one random ability. Some abilities allow them to gain more VP from certain terrain. The battle is deterministic and quick (basically, you just have to 2 more points than the defender, points coming from either an unit, terrain feature or defensive bonus). The catch is that there are no reinforcements. So once your race has run out of steam, you can make it go into decline and pick a new race and start your conquest anew. Player with the highest score by the end of 8 turns win.
War of the Rose. This plays like the A Game of Throne board-game with hidden orders; I never played it myself, actually, but only saw it.