What makes you think sales figures should affect the weather? Seriously, though, why do you think Apple sales figures aren’t important? Keep in mind that the stock market is “forward-looking”. It doesn’t care what is actually happening in a company, only what it’s doing compared to how traders thought it would do. If you see an analyst cut a prediction for earnings, revenue, whatever, the stock price drops.
In case you didn’t know already: There’s three numbers you should be familiar with. 1-Price is the last price the stock traded at. 2-Bid is the highest price that anybody is willing to pay for the stock. 3-Ask is the price that someone is willing to sell it at. The Bid is always lower than the Ask because otherwise, a trade would be executed and a new number would be the Bid and Ask. For example, a stock might trade at $23. If someone out there is offering to buy at $22 and someone out there is willing to sell it at that price, then the quote would fall to $22 and the Bid would be something like $21.95 and the Ask would be like $22.05. The list of all Bids and Asks out there at the current time for a stock is called the “Book”.
As for stock being the value of a company, that’s true in a certain sense, but that value is whatever the traders say it is. There’s a theoretical minimum value which is called the “book value”, basically it’s assets/#stocks. In other words, if the company sold everything it had, down to the staples, and divied it out to each shareholder, that’d be the minimum value of the company. Of course, since the market expects profits and growth, stocks trade much higher than this (roughly 14 times?)