# The fifth force

I got to thinking. There are four forces in the universe - gravity, electromagnetism, the weak force, and the strong force. Gravity dominates large-scale action, electromagnetism dominates chemical and biological reactions, the strong force binds nuclei together, and the weak force mediates nuclear reactions like fission and fusion.

The theory of the early universe is that these forces were bound. Electromagnetic forces and weak forces were bound together in the electroweak force, and the binding of the electroweak force with the strong forces were GUTs, or grand unified theories. At even higher temperatures, GUT force and gravity had merged into a single superforce, governing the behavior of everything, also known as superstrings. As temperatures cooled, these forces split off from another. At 10 to the -43 of a second, gravity split off from the other forces, which were still merged as GUTs. At 10 to the -38 of a second, the strong force froze out from the GUT force, leaving 3 forces operating in the universe: Gravity, the strong force, and the electroweak force. At 10 to the -10 of a second, all forces split apart into what they are today.

My theory is that, since the universe is 3 K temperature now, and assuming it doesn’t re-collapse, it’ll inevitably reach zero. At this point, I theorize a fifth force will split from gravity, the substance we know as “dark matter,” which accounts for 98% of the universe’s mass. Any thoughts?

I have a suggestion: use the word “hypothesize” rather than “theorize”.

As I understand it, the assertion that the universe will eventually reach 0 K is false, due to the Third Law of Thermodynamics. I’m not really sure about this, though, because the Third Law is the one they always leave out of my Thermo courses.

Hey, the number of forces isn’t definite or absolute. If I recall correctly, the force of electromagnetism used to be considered two different forces… electricity and magnetism, obviously enough.

In thirty years, scientists may discover that there are ten, twenty, or even a million different forces in the universe… or they may discover that there are none (ooh, how’s THAT for a Twilight Zone ending?).

Anyway, it’s an interesting idea you have… although I’d file it away with the calculations that say that the universe will ultimately wind up as a vast, mostly-empty space, filled with nothing but gigantic black holes, where the occasional atom manages to form, but the orbit of its electrons makes it as wide as our solar system…

Scientists are already talking about the discovery of a fifth force, one that is causing the universe’s expansion to increase in velocity. The book to look at for the latest theories behind dark matter and the fifth force is Quintessence, by Lawrence Krauss.

So show us your equations that lead you to beleive that this might be the case.

Hypothesizeing from verbal translations of mathmatical theories is high near impossible. I have read many laymans books on physics and they all say something different even though they are talking about the same theroies. You have to understand the math to realy understand what any given theory is saying( I don’t understand the math myself).

“Anyone who tells you that he understands Quantum Mechanics is lieing to you.” Richard Feynman