This is just off the top of my head, but I’ll see if I can dig around later and find some more information. Most languages have /m/, /p/, /t/, and /k/. The latter three often have **, [d], and [g] as allophonic variants if the /b/, /d/, and /g/ phonemes don’t exist.
(A phoneme is what speakers of the language think of as a “sound”, but in all languages many phonemes have more than one realization, and those realizations are called allophones. For instance, the English word “pot” sounds like [p[sup]h[/sup]at] while “spot” would be transcribed [spat]. The superscript “h” refers to aspiration, a puff of air released after the sounds /ptk/ at the beginning of a syllable but not after /s/. This difference is not ordinarily perceived by speakers of the language. So [p] and [p[sup]h[/sup]] and both allophones of /p/.)
/s/ is pretty common as well; as vowels go I’m not aware of any language with a vowel system more minimal than /a/, /i/, /u/ (approximately “pot”, “team”, “loon”) and quite common is the five vowel system of Spanish or Italian /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. All languages permit consonant-vowel syllables, though many or most permit at least some variation on that (consonant clusters, consonants at the ends of syllables, etc.)
Hawai’ian has one of the smallest phonemic inventories of any language, and it has /p/, /m/, /w/, /n/, /l/, /k/, /h/, and /?/ (my clumsy substitute for the glottal stop symbol.) It’s got a typical five vowel system, and vowel length matters. These are all fairly common sounds as basic phonemes go, and it’s a good example of a very minimal phonetic system.
If you want actual universals, the existence of universals that are significant or interesting is controversial. (Certain things are universal: All languages have words. All languages have sentences. All languages have consonants and vowels.) But it’s easy to see broader tendencies - most languages have some sort of stop consonant in the bilabial, dental or alveolar, and velar articulatory sites. Most languages have nasal consonants, and those will usually correspond to stop consonants. All languages use air leaving the lungs in the great majority of their sounds (as opposed to air trapped somewhere else in the articulatory tract or being sucked into the mouth, for example.)