I would say that my cite is myself. Over 50 years in the “world”. My mother is an addiction counselor and my dad was an alcoholic. It’s a truism in that world that AA works; it’s just accepted as fact.
But, you asked for actual science…
Here’s an update to that Cochrane Collaboration study cited in that Atlantic article you quoted:
For the review, the researchers updated Cochrane Collaboration’s 2006 systematic review of AA’s effectiveness, which had been based on eight studies. The 2006 review found that there wasn’t sufficient evidence available to determine whether AA was more effective than other methods.
Since 2006, higher-quality research—including randomized clinical trials and quasi-experiments—on AA’s effectiveness has become available for the Cochrane Collaboration to update the 2006 review.
. . .
Overall, the researchers found AA appears to result in higher rates of sustained abstinence and when compared to other treatment programs. According to the researchers, AA may result in between 22% to 37% of participants remaining abstinent, whereas other treatment programs may result in about 15% to 25% of participants remaining abstinent.
Those percentages show that it is notoriously hard to treat addiction. Another truism is that almost no one gets sober the on the first try. A big attraction of AA is that it’s free, and there is no judgement when you fall.
Here is the Harvard Gazette article on that study.
And here is a separate study done by Stanford. (which Discourse tells me was cited by Qadgop earlier)