What is target drug therapy or target drug? How will it work? Where they hope in the future is to revolutionized medicine.
Most drugs have side effects, example cancer chemotherapy. It is easy to give lethal toxin to kill the cancer but it would also damage so much of you body thus killing you. So it is hard to come up with chemotherapy that kills the cancer but is safe and less side effects.
Much what we learn in high school like finding the molecular basis of a disease, then finding a compound that alters that or binding to certain receptors or target specific enzymes is over simplified.
In real world it is much more complex than want you learn in high school of lock key analogy A affects B interactions.
Here what poster was explaining to me in thread of why it takes long time make new drugs. Why it is so complex.
But I read up in the future they hope target drug therapy or target drugs to revolutionized cancer treatment. What is that and how does that work?
Researchers have already discovered that some cancers can be recognized by a particular protein receptor displayed in the surface of the cancerous cell. For example, some types of Hodgkins Lymphoma* cells display a cell surface protein called CD30. You can think of the CD30 protein like a lock.
Along come researchers who develop an antibody to the CD30 protein. Think of this antibody as a key.
Now the trick. Chemically link a potent toxin drug to the antibody. This combination is called an antibody-drug conjugate.
Now administer the antibody-drug conjugate** only to those patients with Hodgkins Lymphoma who have tested positive for the presence of CD30. The antibody selectively finds the cancer cells and latches onto the CD30 protein like a key fitting into a lock. Then the drug is chemically released and kills the cancer cell. You can thus use a toxin that is much more potent - one that would be too strong for an untargeted therapy.
The hope is that the overall idea will be repeatable for various cancer types.
Identify a cell surface marker unique to a particular type of cancer.
Manufacture an antibody to that cell surface protein.
Chemically attach a toxin to that antibody, creating an antibody-drug conjugate.
Administer said antibody-drug conjugate as targeted therapy.
This will require a change in cancer diagnostics. It will not be sufficient to diagnose “lung cancer.” To determine the best possible drug for a patient will require an analysis of the cancer cells to determine which cell surface proteins are present.
CD30 is also associated with some other types of cancer such as anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The same antibody-drug conjugate is effective against those cancers as well.
** This is a real FDA approved drug, Adcetris, manufactured by Seattle Genetics.
Instead of disabling a protein or blocking receptor sites, another approach is to deactivate the gene that produces the disease causing protein. This is called antisense therapy because a complimentary (antisense gene) is created to deactivate the problem gene. The antisense gene fits into the target gene deactivating it (kind of like “69” ;).)
Another factor being looked into is creating drug molecules that can be guided by an external magnetic field. You guide the drugs to the tumor site, and then you have them activate. This prevents the entire body from having to experience the consequences of the chemo drugs.
Right. The whole idea behind chemotherapy is that it’s poison, but a form of poison that is believed to kill cancer cells faster than normal cells. So they poison the patient and keep poisoning them in hopes that by the time the cancer is 100% dead, the patient is only 60% dead or something like that.