What is the physiology behind losing your voice?

I volunteered at a charity Halloween haunted house last night. Scaring the wits out of a bunch of bratty teenagers was a blast, but now I sound like Louis Armstrong.

My wife and I were wondering what condition my vocal chords are in that causes me to be unable to speak clearly.

Did excessive stretching cause them to become inelastic? That would explain why I can only make low pitch noises.
That said, is there anything that will speed the recovery process?