I understand that there are quite a few different voting systems for national and local parliaments or legislatures. In different countries, how do they determine who is elected to the various legslative bodies?
In the US, the membership House of Representatives is apportioned among the states based on population so the total membership of the House is 435. Each state is divided into Congressional Districts with approximately equal populations. During the Congressional elections every two years, whichever candidate gets the largest number of votes in their Congressional district wins the seat.
Each state has two Senators, who are elected for six year terms, which are staggered so that one-third of the Senate is up for election every two years. When a Senate seat is up for election, whichever candidate gets the largest number of votes in their state wins the seat.
State legislatures use similar systems, except that each legislative house must be elected from districts proportional to population (the “one man, one vote” rule). The members of local legislatures (county legislatures, city councils, etc.) may either be elected from an individual district or ward, or elected at-large from the entire locality.
I believe that some foriegn legislatures use proportional voting based on political parties or other systems. I also understand that sometimes the electoral districts may not contain approximately equal numbers of voters. So, how do the electoral systems that you are familiar with work?