The primary “temporary cause” undertaken by the federal government through most of our history has been war, and many taxes have been imposed to wage it–some of which lapsed and some of which didn’t.
The first episode involved the undeclared naval war with France during the Adams administration. The ruling Federalists imposed a raft of new taxes to pay for it, including a federal property tax on land, buildings, and slaves, and excises on sugar, salt, tobacco, and alcohol. After the crisis passed and the opposition Republicans won the election of 1800, most of these taxes were repealed.
Similar taxes were imposed to pay for the War of 1812, and most had expired by 1817.
During the Civil War, federal property taxes were imposed once again, and also a federal income tax. All had been repealed by 1869.
With the coming of the permanent income tax in 1913, there has been less need for special-purpose federal taxes, because revenues can be manipulated more easily by jockeying rates up and down. World War I was financed by increasing the top marginal tax rate “temporarily” to 77%; it was lowered to 25% after the Republican landslide in 1920. So in this case no taxes were repealed, but rates were lowered–albeit not back to prewar levels.
It was a similar story during World War II and Vietnam. During Vietnam, the Johnson administration imposed a special surtax–a tax on a tax, which was equivalent to raising marginal tax rates–which expired in 1971.
I couldn’t begin to answer the question at the state and local level. The variety of state and local levies is endless.