Let’s say I work for Coke, and Pepsi puts out a new flavor of pop. I buy a case and bring it into the world’s best equipped laboratory for analysis. I tell the scientists to subject this stuff to every chemical and physical analysis known. Money is no object – smash it in a particle accelerator or fly it into orbit if needed, so I know EXACTLY what’s in it, in what proportions, and how to duplicate it.
Could they provide me enough information to do it? If not, what kinds of information would be beyond their ability to know?