After the big bang when a large molten rock was flung into the vacuum of space, I can see that it would eventually cool down, but where did all the water come from? How come we have a massive amount of oceans and seas and ice that obviously wasn’t here at the beginning?
Many scientists believe that our water was brought by icy comets impacting a young Earth.
So is that still happening? I should imagine there must of been plenty of that happening to create the oceans.
The resident astronomers should be here shortly, but this is not at all what happened.
What happened is that after the big bang, the primordial and formless soup of elementary particles, under the effect of the fundamental forces started aggregating, eventually leading to highly concentrated lumps of matter: stars.
Inside such stars, the tremendous temperature and pressure forces the simple particles to fuse into heavier elements. Eventually, the star runs out of light particles to fuse and if it is big enough, this causes a spectacular explosion; a supernova.
The violence of the explosion will cause even heavier elements to be formed. All these, and everything else that was in the star disperses in a vast cloud called a nebula.
Eventually, the elements in the nebula, under the influence of the fundamental forces lump together again, forming a new star, and other smaller lumps of matter. Planets, asteroids, comets, …
So what about water? The hydrogen was there at the time of the big bang. The oxygen was fused by an old star that went supernova to birth our solar system. The two reacted together to form water, which lumped together to form icy bodies in the periphery of the solar system. A long, long time ago, when the solar system was a more crowded place, the Earth got pelted by enough of these ice balls that it was almost entirely covered in water. The conditions were just right that the water didn’t all evaporate or sublimate back into space, and there you go: oceans.
It’s part of both the ‘soup’ and ‘debris’ that clumped into the earth, and also some of the debris (comets and asteroids) still floating around and occasionally hitting the earth. Water is still locked in siliceous rock deep in the mantle and could come out as part of magmatic gas and fluids, but some of this may have percolated back from the surface.
Widespread sedimentation sometime after the earth’s crust cooled marked the formation of the oceans.
Well, there you go, I learn something new every day.
The more interesting question is the opposite! Our own Sun manufactures oxygen, the main ingredient of water; the other ingredient, hydrogen, is primordial. But where does the iron, etc. of “rock” come from? (Ans: Supernovas.)
From what I read, the icy comets (but also other rocks which had hydrogen/oxygen/water in them) were melted into the molten earth. But as it cooled and the surface began to form a brittle, delicate crust, volcanoes formed which belched out all kinds of hot gases rising from the core.
As the earth gained mass a greater escape velocity was needed for gases to fly out into space, so the atmosphere began to form. Initially, that atmosphere was filled with all kinds of material. Water was in there, and enormous rainstorms eventually took place, but the surface was too hot for liquid water so it pretty much evaporate again straight away, making for one hell of a very long and heavy rainstorm.
Eventually, the surface cooled enough for water to remain and not evaporate, and gradually the oceans formed. The atmosphere got a little bit thinner and less Venus-like, then.
I think that you will find that iron, together with most of the elements lighter than iron (i.e., of lower atomic number than iron) are mostly created in regular stars. Supernovae are only necessary to create elements heavier (i.e., of greater atomic number) than iron.
The fact that iron is the heaviest element normally created without a supernova leads to its being one of the most common elements in the universe after hydrogen and helium (mostly from the big bang itself) and carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, also created in regular stars.
Also, although it is true that the current consensus (last I heard) is that most of the water now on Earth arrived from comets that hit the planet well after it was formed (but at a time when comets were much more abundant in the inner solar system than they are now), the mere fact that the rocks composing Earth were originally hot and molten does not in itself rule out the possibility that the water was not there with them all along (and some, indeed, probably was). It just means that the water would originally have been in the form of vapor, steam, in the atmosphere, and would not have turned to liquid until things had cooled down.
You still need supernovae though, or the iron will just sit in the star it formed in, and not be available to form planets.
Ream Immanuel Velikovsky’s 2 volumes – he explains it all . . .
When O and H gases are mixed, does water result ? ?
Since our oceans are salt water wouldn’t Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide not at some stage been involved in the formation of our oceans?
Big regular stars, though. Our own sun isn’t big enough to create iron.
How so? Stars that never go supernova will still often blow off material as they age, and may even go nova (not all novae, stellar explosions, are super ones, by any means). Anyway, are you suggesting that one star going supernova can somehow bring the iron (and other lighter elements) out of other stars? How is that supposed to work?
Reaming is about what what Velikovsky’s works deserve.
It depends how hot it is (amongst other things).
Not just from mixing them, but if you have any kind of spark (lightning, say, or a meteor, or a volcano, or any number of other possible triggers), it all goes <FOOM> and rapidly burns, forming water.
They’re going to blow off the lighter elements preferentially. I could be wrong, but I don’t think these will contribute much to the availability of iron for planets. Regular novae won’t contribute much to interstellar matter in the way of heavy elements either. They’re getting surface gasses from companion stars. From the Wikipedia page:
No, of course not. That would be silly. Supernovae provide iron that they’ve made.
This is not so much a direct answer to the OP’s question, but it does provide a stunning visual of how much water we’re talking about: How much water is there on, in, and above the Earth?
There are zero observations for an Oort Cloud. They want to believe what they want, period.
reefshark, this is a reminder that my instructions not to post creationist arguments in this forum still hold. Further posts of this sort may be subject to a warning.
Further, if you wish to dispute a scientific hypothesis such as the Oort Cloud do so with factual evidence, not simply dismissing it as in the post above.
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