The Nazis had several tests sites, Peenemunde on the Baltic was used to test V1 rockets.
As for atomic weapons, by 1942 Germany had figured out most of the mechanics of building an atomic weapons, Werner Heisenberg the lead Nazi scientist has been both praised and villified for his roles. He switched his statements a lot but in the end he said, Germany simply could never have built the bomb under the wartime conditions. There were far too many shortages of food, material, raw goods, and if they couldn’t come up with the basics, what the scientists needed was so far out of reach it was un-doable.
Kurt Diebner Heisenberg’s friendly rival seemed a bit better at conceptualizing and managed to come up with plans for a plutonium weapon.
Thuringia was the test site of a Nazi atomic weapon centering around Ohrdruf
Now there is dispute to this, some historians doubt it happened. If it DID happen what the Nazi’s tested wasn’t a device like was dropped on Japan, it was, more akin to a dirty nuke. With a bomb going off and spreading nuclear fallout. Soil analysis confirms higher than should be, normal radiation samples, but natural causes can’t be ruled out.
This test occured in early March of 1945 and General Patton was in the city by mid April of 1945. And he found over a thousand miles of underground tunnels, some as deep as 50 feet underground. It is believed though this was to be a place of retreat for Nazi higher ups after they got bombed out of Berlin
Ohrdruf was the site of a concentration camp and Soviet documents confirm seeing liberated prisoner with symptoms similar to radiation sickness but again nothing was confirmed by Western Allies.
The island of Rugen is the supposed site of another test of crude Nazi nukes. This is doubtful as well.
The Americans took over 125,000 people develop the bombs for Japan. Germany never had more than a dozen scientists at any one time working on any nuclear project. The general belief is by the end of WWII, the Nazis were approx at the place where the Americans were in 1942, when it came to building the bomb.
In answer to the OP question, if the Nazis could’ve had a bomb, they could’ve gotten it no eariler than 1945. So they would be vastly limited in the places they could test it because their armed forces didn’t control as much as they did. It seems an island in the Baltic sea would be their best bet or in the mountainous areas of Germany or Poland they still controlled.