Why did Ataturk ..

…make Turkey a secular nation ?

I’m just running out the door, so I can’t give a fuller post, but basically Ataturk put a lot of weight on Western conceptions of ‘civilisation’: he looked a at a world where secular democracies were in charge and decided that Turkey needed to emulate them if it was to regain former glory.

This same reasoning also led him to promote hats.

It also makes sense if you consider that he overthrew a previous regime built on a more religious base.

Were Tukey’s axis partners in WW1 true democracies ?

Compared to the Ottoman Empire they were.

Oh, and “the Axis” was WW2, in WW1 the losing team was called the Central Powers.

A muslim nation, becoming a secular one , without at least some resistance from some pockets of sociey !

Was Ataturk able to carry all the powerful people along easily ?

Was there no dissent at all ? Or were they brutally suppressed ?

There was lots of resistance, but Ataturk controlled the army. Turkey is somewhat unique in that way - there have always been Islamists, but every time they take power (or are about to) the army steps in, and then restores power to the civilian government when the danger of a theocratic coup is passed.

Quite amazing, really.

Yup. It’s one of the neat things about the Turkish military - it’s commonplace for generals to say they’re acting to preserve the constitution and freedom and some such, but the Turkish military actually means it.

This isn’t to say that it’s an entirely perfect system - calling Islamist approaches to power “theocratic coups” isn’t really correct. The military also has stepped in, traditionally, when Islamists have won (or been about to win) free and fair elections. This is changing, though - Erdogan has a moderate Islamist background, and took power in 2000-ish without sparking a military coup.

Thank you for both replies .

I am aware of the military role in recent recent Turkey politics ! But I am more interested in the Turkey of 1920s and 30s and the reactions of Turkish society .

Any links to some good impartial commentary of the secularisation of turkey ?